What does the Indonesian expression ikam bujur mean?

KATA PENGANTAR. Tantangan yang dihadapi guru dalam melaksanakan amanah edukatifnya

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2 KATA PENGANTAR Tantangan yang dihadapi guru dalam melaksanakan amanah edukatifnya semakin hari semakin beragam seiring dengan berkembangnya ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi pena pemberlakuan kebijakan pemerintah yang terkait den Indonesia. Berbagai tantangan tersebut menuntut guru untuk selalu aktif mengembangkan kompensi yang dimilikinya, agar tugastugas yang diembannya dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik. Dalam lingkup yang luas, kemampuan guru dalam mengembangkan dan menyelaraskam diri dengan perkembangan jaman menjadi factor yang sangat menentukan keberhasilan pencapaian tujuan pendidikan. Sebagai sebuah organisasi profesi, IGBJI (Ikatan Guru Bahasa Jerman Indonesia) menyadari perlunya upaya yang sungguh-sungguh yang harus dilakukan oleh semua stake holder pendidikan dalam membantu mengembangkan kemampuanya guru tanggerman, khususnya guru bahawa optimal. Salah satu upaya yang dilakukan IGBJI adalah menyediakan sebuah forum ilmiah berupa seminar bagi guru bahasa Jerman untuk berbagi ilmu dan bertukar pengalaman mengenai berbagai hal yang terkait erat dengan pembelajaran ma bahasa Jerman, baupuning digi. Seminar tersebut terintegrasi dalam penyelenggaraan Congress Nasional IGBJI VI yang berlangsung tanggal 4 hingga 6 August 2016 dan bertemppat di PPPPTK Bahasa Srengseng Sawah Jakarta. Dalam seminar yang bertajuk Digitization in German lessons for the success of the program learning teachers: innovation and challenges dipresentasikan sebanyak 26 makalah yang terbagi kedalam beberapa subtema, yaitu (1) language and culture / Bahasa dan Budaya (2) German teaching & learning / Berbagai metode pembelajaran bahasa Jerman (3) Digital media in class / Penggunaan Media Digital dalam Pembelajaran (3) Quality assurance and quality development / Pemantapan dan peningkatan kualitas (4) Testing and checking i

3 in German lessons (5) dan (6) language teaching and learning research / Penelitian di bidang pengajaran & pembelajaran. Seluruh makalah yang disajikan dalam prosiding ini bersumber dari berbagai pengelaman empiris, pendalaman wedge muan dan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh guru dan dosen bahasa Jerman dari berbagai kota di Indonesia. Dari kegiatan ini diharakan akan timbul perluasan wawasan serta peningkatan motivasi dan kompensi guru bahasa Jerman terutama berkenaan dengan penggunaan media digital dalam pembelajaran. Seminar ini tidak akan dapat dilaksanakan tanpa adanya dukungan dan peran serta berbagai pihak terutama partisipasi pemakalah dan peserta. Oleh karena itu, kami ucapkan terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang telah menunjukkan kepedulian dan semangat berbagi dalam menjawab tantangan yang kita hadapi dalam menjalankan tugas sebagai pengajar bahasa Jerman. Jakarta, Agustus 2016 Panitia ii

4 Daftar Isi Kata Pengantar ... i Daftar Isi ... iii INTERCULTURAL WRITING Ahmad Sahat Perdamean, Universitas Negeri Medan ... 1 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD TO IMPROVE HEARING UNDERSTANDING Yunanfathur Rahman, Universitas Negeri Surabaya THE VOCABULARY MASTERY WITH THE WRITING SKILL OF THE GERMAN PERSONAL LETTER OF THE STUDENTS Laelah Azizah Suhaeb- Irhana, Universitas Negeri Makasar PENGEMBANGAN KELANCARAN BERBICARA BAHASA JERMAN BAGI PEMELAJAR TUSKAT, KALANCARAN BERBICARA BAHASA JERMAN BAGI PEMELAJAR INDONIA , FKIPAmbon GERMAN LESSONS AT THE PRIMARY SCHOOL SD LATIHAN YP. HKBP PEMATANGSIANGTAR Ferawaty Siregar, SMA YP HKBP Pematang Siantar PROMOTING THE GERMAN LANGUAGE OF LEARNERS AT PRIMARY SCHOOL THROUGH FAIRY TALES Ida Costansa Tamaela, FKIP Universitas Pattimura iii

5 GERMAN AS A pluricentric language in the world Iwa Sobara, Universitas Negeri Malang Pengembangan PROFESIONALITAS GURU terkait PEMELAJARAN MOBILE Audrey Gabriella Titaley, University of Indonesia PEMANFAATAN JEJARING Sosial 'Edmodo' DALAM ProSeS PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA Jerman DI Madrasah ALIYAH Negeri Bangkalan Dian Kurnia, Madarasah Aliyah Negeri Bangkalan Madura Self learning in foreign language learning Endang K. Trijanto, Universitas Negeri Jakarta PENERAPAN DURATION DICTATON________________________ PADA PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA Jerman Ellysa Yuniar Eka Wardhani, SMA Negeri 7 Malang PEMANFAATAN MEDIA Gambar DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KETERAMPILAN Menulis KARANGAN Sederhana Siswa Kelas II SMA Negeri 3 MAKASSAR Wahyu Kurniati Asri, Universitas Negeri Makasar DAM, I WILL WIN THE GAME! Lilis Afifah, Universitas Negeri Malang A GERMAN LESSON MODEL ON GETTING TO KNOW THE TOPIC AFTER 3 PHASE MODELS Sri Prameswari Indriwardhani, Universitas Negeri Malang HOW DO YOU TEST RECEPTIVE GERMAN COMPETENCE? Primardiana Hemilia Wijayati- Iwa Sobara, Universitas Negeri Malang iv

6 ,, I DO NOT BITE YOU! (STRATEGIES AGAINST ANY OF SPEECH IN CLASS LESSONS) Rofi ah, Universitas Negeri Malang DEALING WITH LITERARY TEXT IN GERMAN LESSONS AT SMA Santiah, Universitas Negeri Jakarta FUN WITH GRAMMAR LEARNING Siti Kudriyah AND, Universitas Negeri Medan, USING FURNISHING FOR UNIVERSITIES Negeri Medan Negeri Pattimura DOES THE TEACHING GERMAN IS FUN REALLY FUN? Wisnu Amalia Sampurna- Primardiana Hermilia, Universitas Negeri Malang NEURODIDACTICS AS A DIDACTICS IN DAF LESSONS Dewi Kartika Ardiyani, Universitas Negeri Malang LEARN TO WRITE AFTER READING ACTIVITIES Rizman Usman, Universitas NegerJulANAS PENegeryAPANitas MEDIA DURING GERMAN LESSONS AT SCHOOL Ika Rahayu Afriani, SMANU MHThamrin Jakarta MEDIA BOOK POP-UP IMPROVES THE ABILITY TO READ LITERARY TEXTS Nunung Mintarsih, SMA Negeri 1 Maospati v

7 INTERCULTURAL IN WRITING Ahmad Sahat Perdamean Universitas Negeri Medan Abstract: The aim of this letter is to explain which intercultural aspects one should know when writing. Before writing, one should know the different cultures between the Indonesian culture and the German culture. When writing, especially when writing a personal and semi-formal letter, you should pay attention to the following points. You are i) salutation; ii) personal pronouns you, you and me; iii) greeting; iv) particles please; v) correct according to German grammar but wrong according to culture; vi) personal matter that is better not to ask anyone. Finally, one should master intercultural aspects of writing. Keywords: intercultural, writing INTRODUCTION Learning German does not only mean getting to know the German language, country and people, but also learning about culture. There are different cultures between the Indonesian culture and the German culture in speaking and writing. Because of the differences, you sometimes have difficulty in oral and written communication. If you communicate with other people from different cultures and each of them expresses their own rules or norms, then of course there could be misunderstandings and the communication would not be successful. With the understanding of culture one could communicate well with other people. When writing, you should also have an understanding of culture. In order to understand culture one should know the aspects of a culture. The aim of this letter sets out the intercultural aspects. INTERKULTURELL Kultur is a collection of rules for society, how one can behave, how one can interact with others (Hutagalung, 2013: 73). There is interculturality between one's own culture and another's culture (Bolten in Hutagalung, 2013). Intercultural communication occurs when communicating with people from other cultures (Bukhori, 2013: 49). It is very necessary, especially for German students, to have language skills and intercultural skills. Intercultural competence is an important factor in communication so that communication can go well. One should know a lot about foreign cultures. You could communicate in writing or orally. In written communication, one should not only use one rule of the language well and correctly, but also integrate intercultural aspects. One should learn the aspects before integration. 1

8 WRITING Writing is the putting down of thoughts and feelings on paper (Leo, 2002: 10). Writing is also an activity of thinking and speaking. Writing perpetuates the language not only with graphic characters, but also language ability in indirect communication. Indirect communication can be used in correspondence, seminars, conferences and distance learning. Of course, it takes good writing skills to communicate indirectly. The explanation is letter, working paper, lecture, and others (Hardjono, 1988: 85). A letter could be a personal and a semi-formal letter. When writing, especially when writing a personal and semi-formal letter, you should pay attention to the following points. 1. Salutation In a personal letter you use a salutation such as: Dear Laura, or Dear Sahat. In the semi-formal letter, a salutation is used: Dear Ms. Lärm, or Dear Mr. Perdamean, if you know who is containing the letter; Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sir or Madam, when writing to an office (Hantschel and Krieger, 2003: 23). There is a comma after the salutation. The first word of the following line is written in lower case after the comma, unless it is a noun. 2. Personal pronouns Sie, du und ich A personal letter is always written to good friends in the you form, but only the you form is possible in semi-formal letters (Dinsel and Reimann, 2000: 55). The recipients of a personal letter are usually people with whom one is on first terms. Personal pronoun you, your, your, your, your, your, your, you, you is written in lower case. The people who say you to one another are members of a family and relatives to one another, friends to one another, adults to children and adolescents under the age of 16, students to one another, work colleagues to one another (if they have agreed this), children and younger people to one another, for example in sports clubs. In the semi-formal letter or in the formal letter, you only write in the you form. Personal pronouns you, your, yours, yours, yours, yours, yours, you are capitalized. The people you say to one another are children and adolescents to adults when they are not related or friends; Adults among each other, unless the form of address has been expressly agreed with you (supervisors / employees, teachers / pupils, professors / students, etc.). If you write to someone in a semi-formal letter, or vice versa, you are rude, so to speak. One should be careful with the pronoun I when using it at the beginning of a letter (especially in semi-official and semi-official letters). To start a letter with the word I is still felt by many to be unpleasant (Herweg, Kanopka and Ackerman, 2006: 21). An example of a beginning without starting with me: Dear Mr. Schmitt, I was very happy about the letter ... or Dear Karl, thank you very much for your greeting from Munich ... 2

9 3. Greetings Greetings in a personal letter you write warm greetings, all love, many greetings, many love greetings, all love and best. In the business area, the greeting is also often used in a semi-formal letter. Yours sincerely. It is also usual with kind regards, with kind regards and friendly greetings. Respectfully appears more distant in any case, but is rarely used today because many consider it to be out of date (Herweg, Kanopka and Ackerman, 2006: 47). 4. Particle please The German language is content with a simple request, but the Indonesian language (Bahasa Indonesia) knows different ones that precisely capture and express the subtle differences in meanings. There are at least six polite and adroit ways of expressing requests (Draine and Hall, 1988: 38). a. Tolong With tolong one asks for physical assistance. In German it would mean something: Could you please lend a hand? Please write to me as soon as possible (Tolong tulis kepadaku secepatnya). Will you wash the dishes, please? (Tolong, cuci piring!) Please close the door, there's a draft (Tolong tutup pintu, ada angin bertiup). b. Minta (request to do something) If you are in the pasar, then please also buy a few oranges (Minta beli jeruk di pasar). Will you hand me the fried rice, please (Minta nasi gorengnya). c. Coba (try, try) Please write to them as soon as possible. Maybe you're lucky and they'll rent the room this summer too (Cobalah tulis surat kepada mereka secepat mungkin. Kemungkinan engkau beruntung dan mereka juga menyewakan kamar pada musim panas ini). Please open this bottle (Coba buka botol ini). Please enjoy the cakes! (Coba cicipi kue-kuenya!) D. Harap (hope, expect) Come on, please. We hope that you will come (Saya harap kamu bisa datang). Please write to me about your experience after Bukit Lawang in the next letter! (Harap tuliskan pengalamanmu ke Bukit Lawang dalam surat berikutnya!) E. Silakan (a very formal expression for request) Please write your answer to my address: (Silakan tulis jawaban Anda ke alamat surel saya: Please enjoy the drink! (Silakan minum!) Please take a seat! (Silakan duduk !) f. Mohon (request, request, implore) 3

10 Mohon is the expression for a respectful, devoted request. Please excuse my delay (Mohon maaf, saya datang terlambat). Please excuse that I can only reply to your letter now (Mohon maaf karena baru sekarang saya bisa membalas suratmu). 5. Correct according to the German grammar but incorrect according to the culture The sentence I visit my friends, but they are not there is correct according to the grammar. After the culture, the activity is unusual for Germans. Very seldom happens when you visit a friend, but the friend is not at home. The Germans make an appointment before the visit. It is very rude and disrespectful to visit someone without an agreement (Baginda, 2013). 6. Personal thing that shouldn't be asked of someone There are many personal things for Germans, Swiss and Austrians that people (Indonesian students as an example) shouldn't ask. One shouldn't ask the Germans, Swiss and Austrians, whom one has only just met, about this matter. Some personal matters are date of birth (when someone was born), age (how old someone is), work (what someone works), monthly wage (how much someone earns a month), children (whether someone has children, or why someone has no children) , Address (where someone lives), status (whether someone is already married) and religion (whether someone has religion). But these things are common for Indonesian society to ask. CONCLUSION It can be summarized here that when writing, especially when writing a personal and semi-formal letter, one should master intercultural aspects. The aspects are 1 salutation; 2 personal pronouns you, you and me; 3 greetings; 4 particles please; 5 correct according to German grammar but wrong according to culture; vi) personal matter that is better not to ask anyone. REFERENCES Baginda, Putra Sulung Suplemen bagi Pembelajaran Menulis, on the side: Bukhori, Herri Akhmad Culture shock using the example of Indonesian students in Germany in the Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa, Sastra, dan Budaya Jerman. Volume 01 September ISSN: X. Jakarta: Asosiasi Germanistik Indonesia (AGI). Dinsel, Sabine and Reimann, Monika Fit for the German certificate (tips and exercises). Ismaning: Max Hueber Verlag. Draine, Cathie and Hall, Barbara Kultur Knigge Indonesia. Nördlingen: Verlag Simon & Magiere KG. Hantschel, Hans Jürgen and Krieger, Paul With success in the intermediate level examination. Exercise book. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett International. 4th

11 Hardjono, Sartinah Prinsip-Prinsip Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra. Jakarta: Directorate Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi. P2LPTK. Herweg, Marlies; Kanopka, Anja; and Ackerman, Sylvia sent letters. Write well and correctly! Mannheim: DUDEN Hutagalung, Surya Masniari Intercultural competence through German lessons in the Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa, Sastra, dan Budaya Jerman. Volume 01 September ISSN: X. Jakarta: Asosiasi Germanistik Indonesia (AGI). Leo, T Surat-Menyurat untuk Berbagai Keperluan. Jakarta: Harmoni. 5

12 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD TO IMPROVE HEARING COMPREHENSION Yunanfathur Rahman S1 Sastra Jerman, Faculty Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Surabaya Abstrack: Listening is the language skills that are closely related to the daily life of human beings. Listening is the process of accepting verbal symbols with caring, understanding, appreciation, and the interpretation of information, here we capture the content or messages, as well as to understand the meaning of communication. While listening to a foreign language we will hear how the language is spoken. Therefore, listening is a basic skill that must be mastered by learners in learning a foreign language before speaking, reading and writing skills. But in fact, the German language learners have difficulty in listening. The Total Physical Response method can desirably overcome this problem Key words: methodes, German, german learning INTRODUCTION Listening comprehension is the language ability that is closely related to people's everyday lives. Listening comprehension is the process of listening to verbal symbols with understanding and interpreting information to grasp the content or messages, as well as understanding communication. While listening to a foreign language, we also learn how the language is spoken. Therefore, listening comprehension is a fundamental skill that learners should master in learning a foreign language before speaking, reading, and writing skills. But in fact, German learners have difficulties in listening comprehension.Listening comprehension can help learners with sound recognition, differences in meaning, acquiring vocabulary and also improving grammar. Listening comprehension is an important language skill in order to acquire other skills. At Unesa's German department, almost all students learn German from the start. It is certainly a challenge that everyone should have a command of listening comprehension with all their skills in the German language. At Unesa we have listening as listening comprehension lessons. The teachers strive to bring the original sounds of the German native speakers so that textbooks that are equipped with an audio or audiovisual material are used in the classroom. But something is still missing because teaching this skill (listening comprehension) requires a special way. Based on the above problems, it is necessary for a breakthrough that can be used in learning, especially in listening comprehension classes. We hope that the German learners can improve their HV grade. One attempt to do this is by using the Total Physical Response method in German teaching. 6th

13 The following is proposed in the Total Physical Response method; German teachers carry out spoken words or sentences directly to the learners. The sentences usually contain an instruction. After that, the learners will respond with physical movements before producing a verbal response or utterance. This will stimulate them not only to remember verbally, but also to reinforce their memory with movements, and hopefully also to see and properly imitate the pronunciation of a vocabulary. This figure (Figure 1) summarizes the process. Figure 1 Total Physical Response in learning the German language This presentation gives us the information that the Total Physical Response method can improve listening comprehension. In addition, the learners and also the teachers can use the presentation of the information in German lessons. The application of this method should not only be limited in listening comprehension, but also in oral ability (speaking skills). LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE According to Pringgawidagda (2002: 20) learning is a process of acquiring knowledge about a particular topic or of acquiring the ability to learn. Learning is a complex aspect of people that cannot be fully explained. Foreign language learning context is the context in which learners never use a foreign language (Brown, 2001: 116). Learners never or did not reach the minimum skills required to use a foreign language in communication. Nunan (1989: 113) explains that foreign language learning, especially for elementary level, is part of daily activities, including (1) introducing yourself, (2) about a person, such as name, age and address, (3 ) Participating in a brief dialogue about the exchange of information between people, (4) giving information about a person, (5) naming the days, (6) understanding the request for information, and (7) im Conversation to be relatively active. A variety of these activities are the same around the world, but the lingual form is different. In addition, the cultural background greatly influences the understanding between the speakers. Hardjono (1988: 28) explains the purpose of foreign language learning according to the function of intercultural communication. The is to acquire foreign language skills as a means of communication, to express oneself verbally and through the system and the conditions in written form, while the function of cultural understanding in foreign language teaching is the mutual understanding between the people whose language is being learned. This can only be successful if the learners also learn cultural, historical, social, economic and other aspects of life in the language they have learned. From the above opinions, it can be summarized that learning German as a foreign language is a process in which science or the rules of the language are taught through 7

14 Study, experience and also get training. Basic foreign language learning focuses on daily activities, because through the things that are to be directly experienced, it is to be allowed, the beginner can express the purpose of communication. German learners try to understand and express verbal and written statements. German is a means of expressing an idea, both orally and in writing. Of course we also have to pay attention to the cultural and grammatical aspects. LISTENING COMPREHENSION Language skills are listening comprehension, speaking skills, reading comprehension, and writing skills. Among these four skills, listening comprehension is the basic skill that everyone learns from the start. Listening is the process of hearing, identifying, and interpreting sounds in order to interpret and evaluate the meaning of those sounds. Language is a means by which one can exchange information or messages with others. In HV there are several stages or processes from listening to understanding the content of the text. These stages are recognizing sounds, recognizing prognoses, linking interpretation with previous knowledge of the listener, then grasping the conclusion. Someone who only hears is not yet at the level of listening comprehension, because he is probably not yet at the level of understanding or even appreciation. Listening comprehension can be guided through various activities. The activities are: (1) Tasks that are done before listening, listening to a simplified text, discussing a text on the same topic, (2) Tasks that are done while listening: (a) Intensive listening, with body movement , and (b) ecstensive listening, multiple choice, correct incorrectly ticked, (3) correctly incorrectly selected and ticked tasks that are done after listening. When using the TPR method, it is expected that the learners understand everything through the physical activity of the teacher and can recognize the movement and then express it orally. This will also develop their oral language skills and understanding. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) METHOD Total Physical Response method is the concept of language teaching by Prof. James J. Asher. This method is a teaching method based on the coordination of language and action; This method attempts to teach the language through physical activity or motor activity (movement) (Mahyuddin, 2010: 97). With this method, the learner is obliged to understand the foreign language through physical activity. This procedure would also like to combine the realization of the relationship between physical reactions (motor) and language acquisition. Asher noted that the current human language acquisition is first hearing before speaking. Hearing is accompanied by physical reactions (taking, touching, moving, seeing, and so on). He also pays attention to right brain learning. Motor activity is a right brain function that must be preceded by language processing by the left hemisphere. So in the procedure of the TPR class there are many movements. The learners hear and do something. The teacher is the director of a drama and the actors are the learners (Asher, 1977: 43 in Brown 2007: 20). 8th

15 Total Physical Response actually consists of commands from the teacher. For example, when the teachers say, "Please stand up!" Then the learners will stand; Anyway, when the teachers say, "Sit down!", The learners sit down. Kennedy (2000) describes that the Total Physical Response method has five techniques or five methods of application in learning activities, namely: The teacher says and executes a command. The teacher repeats the command, and the teacher and student carry out the command. The teacher repeats the command and the students carry out the command. The teacher says and one of the students carries out the command. Students give orders to each other and everyone does it. These variations allow learners to try out a wide range of vocabulary. They will have fun learning because they do everything with creativity. Total Physical Response method can be used in German listening comprehension classes. According to Nababan (1993: 83), this method has more emphasis on teaching listening comprehension in the early stages of foreign language learning. As we already knew, listening skills guide the other language skills. With this method, the learner is obliged to understand the foreign language through physical activity. This method also realizes the relationship between physical reactions and language acquisition, provides learning materials in the form of a command, gives the meaning of a word in the form of a physical demonstration, and avoids feelings of fear and boredom when learning a foreign language. In principle, this method is a method of learning that relies on the coordination of speech and action through physical activity. This method has a great influence with the class situation, the classroom then comes to life and the learners will also test their skills in a creative way. CONCLUSION Many only focus on part of the brain in class. But this TPR method enables the use and functions between the parts of the brain, right brain and left brain. Verbal activities such as speaking, reading, and writing use the left brain, and the TPR process uses the right brain. TPR includes kinesthetic sensor system, which is the most powerful learning tool that is rarely used in a traditional learning system. Therefore, this method can make language acquisition faster and optimize it. In addition, the learners are very motivated to use this method as this method causes very little stress. The previous research then mentioned that this method is suitable for children and adults, both for students and teachers. Another advantage of the TPR method is the consecutive both physical and verbal activity, this enables long-term memory. Therefore, this procedure is suitable for beginners and also for all levels of learners. But the use of this method is intended to be limited. Because the continuous process also makes the learner tired and boring. It is still necessary to use other method procedures. 9

16 BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, H. Douglas (penerjemah: Noor Cholis & Y.A Pareanom) Prinsip Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran Bahasa. Jakarta: Kedutaan Besar AS. Hardjono, Sartinah Prinsip-prinsip Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra.bud, Directorate Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi (Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan). Kennedy, Angela Total Physical Response: An Innovative Strategy for the Second Language Classroom. Mahyuddin, Erta. Pembelajaran Bahasa Asing Metode Tradisional & Contemporer Jakarta Timur: Bania Publishing. Nababan, Subyakto Sri Utami Metodologi Pembelajaran Bahasa. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Nunan, David Languange Teaching Methodology. USA: Prentice Hall International Group (UK) Ltd. Pringgawidagda, Suwarna Strategi Penguasaan Bahasa. Yogyakarta: Adicita Karya Nusa. 10

17 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOCABULARY MASTERY WITH THE WRITING SKILL OF THE GERMAN PERSONAL LETTER OF THE STUDENTS Laelah Azizah Suhaeb and Irhana State University Makassar Abstract: The relationship between the vocabulary mastery with the writing ability of the German personal letter of the pupil. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the vocabulary command with the writing ability of the student's German personal letter. The data was collected through the written test and analyzed through Technik Product Moment Correlation. The population for this research was 24 eleventh grade students at SMA Negeri 1 Bontonompo kabupaten Gowa. The sample was the total sample (Total Sampling). The level of vocabulary proficiency of the German language students was 60.82% with an average score of 30.41 and that is the good category. The level of writing skills of the students' German personal letter was 53.57% with an average value of 3.75 and that is the Few category. There is a relationship between vocabulary and the writing skills of the German personal letter. The result showed that there was a significant relationship between the command of the vocabulary and the writing skills of the German personal letter of the 11th grade students at the SMA Negeri 1 Bontonompo kabupaten Gowa (rh = 0.877> rt = 0.404). This relationship is shown by the correlation coefficient 0.877 which was very strong relationship. Keywords: - INTRODUCTION A foreign language that has been taught at several universities in Indonesia is German. German is a compulsory subject in language courses and as local content in no language courses. Learning the German language in schools is geared towards allowing learners to master all four language skills, namely: speaking skills, writing skills, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension. The fourth skills are supported by two other important aspects, namely mastery of vocabulary and grammar. The command of vocabulary makes an important contribution in the process of writing activities like letter writing because the vocabulary has a very important part in interaction and communication. A person's rich vocabulary also determines the quality of the person's language skills. The amount of the amount of vocabulary for the German language, as they were written in the competence standards, basic competence, indicators and topic learning materials German, is vocabulary (Erlida P, 2012: 19). 11

18 Based on observations and interviews with teachers of SMAN 1 Bontonompo kabupaten Gowa, information received that most students still have limitations in their thoughts and ideas in writing. A lack of vocabulary among the students has an impact on the ability to speak German in general and the writing skills of researchers in particular. Another thing that can affect the level of vocabulary and writing skills of students is the lack of form of the assignment such as a letter. Although the students always get the task in the written form, but the task in the letter form is still little. Vocabulary is a component of a language that supports general language skills as a bridge or vessel to convey a meaning, meaning and information. This is in line with the views expressed by Rastuti (2009: 3) that: "The vocabulary is all the words contained in the language, the fortune owned by a speaker or writer, the words used in the fields of science, such as economics, social , Education or physics ". This is precisely because vocabulary is one of the aspects of language acquisition. Tarigan (2011: 2) argues that "the quality of a person's language skills depends on the quality and quantity of their vocabulary". Classification of words in the German language consists of nouns, adjectives, verbs and conjunctions. Tarigan (2008: 14) explains that "Writing is a language skill that has been used to communicate indirectly and not meet with other people". One form of writing in school is a personal letter. Ali (2006: 3) argues that "a personal letter is a letter whose content is familial, friendship and introduction". RESEARCH METHODS This research is a descriptive correlation research which aims to notice the correlation between vocabulary relationship with the writing ability of the German personal letter of student XI language class at SMAN 1 Bontonompo kabupaten Gowa. Two variables are used in this research: students' vocabulary proficiency in German as an independent variable (X) and writing ability of personal letters in German as a dependent variable (Y). All students of the XI language class of SMAN 1 Bontonompo kabupaten Gowa, which is 24 students, are population in research. The sample in this research was the Totalle Sample. The analysis of the data uses a percent formula to determine the level of vocabulary and writing skills of the student's personal letter. In addition, the research data is also revised with product-moment correlation analysis techniques to determine if there was a significant correlation between vocabulary with writing skills of the student's personal letter. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Data Analysis Results Mastery Vocabulary Test The mastery vocabulary research data consists of four types of test. The tests are to determine nouns, adjectives, verbs and conjunctions. The maximum score on the test is 50. Based on the analysis of the data, it can be seen that the average score of the 12th

19 students to determine the noun was 10.45 (69.66%), then the test to determine the adjective letter was 6.16 (61.6%), the test to determine the verb was 6.45 (43%) was, and the test to determine the conjunction was 7.33 (73.3%). The results of the data analysis of the writing ability of the personal letter Research data on the writing ability of the personal letter test consists of two aspects. The second aspects are the cumulative aspect and the grammar aspect. Skor maximum on two aspects are 7. Based on the results of the data analysis showed that the average score by the research renders on the cumulative aspect was 1.62 (54%) and on aspects of grammar 2.13 (53.25%) was. Based on data analysis, it can be seen that the average student score on vocabulary tests with proficiency level was 60.82% and an average score from a personal letter writing skill test was 3.75, with proficiency level 53.57%. And then both grades were processed by students using product-moment correlation technique, from the calculation result, it explained that r table was larger than r calculation (rh> rt), 0.877> 0.404 at significance level 5%. So the strength relationships between the two variables are classified in the very strong category.So we can conclude that H0 means that there was no correlation between the command of the vocabulary and the writing skills of the German personal letter. That is rejected. But H1 states that there was a significant positive relationship between mastery of vocabulary and the ability to write the German personal letter. That is accepted. CONCLUSION Based on the analysis of the data described above, it can be closed. Among other things: The level of the vocabulary mastery of the German language students was 60.82% with an average value of 30.41 and that is the good category. The level of writing skills of the students' German personal letter was 53.57% with an average value of 3.75 and that is the Few category. There is a relationship between vocabulary with the writing skills of the German personal letter. This relationship is shown by the correlation coefficient 0.877 which was very strong relationship. DAFTAR PUSTAKA Ali, Adlan, Tanzili Pedoman Lengkap Menulis Surat. Jakarta: Kawan. Arikunto, Suyono Cara Dahsyat Membuat Skripsi. Madiun: Jaya Star Nine. Bolton, Sibylle Problems of Performance Measurement. Munich: Langenscheidt. (terjemahan Goethe Institute Jakarta). Darjat Siapapun Bisa Bahasa Jerman. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi. Djiwandono, M. Soenardi Tes Bahasa dalam Pengajaran. Bandung: ITB. 13th

20 Emmerich, Sabine dan Federica Colombo .. Learn German with games and puzzles. Santiago: Eli. Erlida, P Penguasaan Kosakata Bahasa Jerman SMA Negeri 1 Pakem. Skripsi: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta Haryadi, Moh Statistics Pendidikan. Banyuwangi: Prestasi Pustaka Raya. Iskandarwassid dan Dadang Sunendar Strategi Pemebelajaran Bahasa. Bandung: PT. Rosdakarya. http //: di unduh pada tahun 2014 Junus, Muhammad / Junus, Fatimah Keterampilan Berbahasa Tulis. Makassar: Badan Penerbit Umum. Kars, Jϋrgen, dan Ulrich Häussermann Basic German grammar. Jerman: Diesterweg dan Sauerländer. Lasahido, SE, MM Penanganan Surat. Jakarta: Departemen Keuangan. Neubold, Joachim (PONS) Gramatika Ringkas Bahasa Jerman. Jakarta: Katalis. Nurgiyantoro, Burhan Penilaian Pembelajaran Bahasa Berbasis Kompetenzi. Yogyakarta: BPFE- Yogyakarta. Nurjamal, D. Sumirat W, dan Darwis, R Terampil Berbahasa. Bandung: Alfabeta. Murni Kemampuan Menulis Surat Pribadi dalam Bahasa Jerman Siswa Kelas XI SMA N 1 Anggeraja Kabupaten Enrekang. Skripsi: Universitas Negeri Makassar. Saadiah, Gisti Hubungan Penguasaan Kosakata dengan Kemampuan Menulis Dialog Bahasa Jerman Siswa Kelas XII SMAN 18 Bandung. Skripsi: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung. Septriyanti, Yesi, dkk Hubungan Penguasaan Kosakata dengan Keterampilan Menulis Argumentasi Siswa Kelas X SMAN 6 Padang. Jurnal: FBS Universitas Negeri Padang. Semi, A Dasar-dasar Keterampilan Menulis. Bandung: Angkasa. Steets, Angelika dan Ehlich, Kohrad Scientific writing, teaching and learning. Berlin: Water Groyter. Sudarsa, dkk Surat Menyurat dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Sudjana method statistics. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Sulaiman, Abu Bakar, dkk Kosakata Bahasa Melayu Riau. Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Suprapto Pedoman Lengkap Surat Menyurat Bahasa Indonesia. Surabaya: Indah. Suryono, moo. Aswin Keterampilan Menulis Surat dalam Bahasa Jerman Siswa SMA Negeri 8 Makassar. Skripsi: FBS UNM. Tarigan, H.G. Menulis sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa. Bandung: Angkasa. Trianto, Agus Pembahasan Tuntas Kompetenzi Bahasa Indonesia untuk SMP dan MTs Jilid 1. Jakarta: Esis. Wahyuni, Dr. Sri M.Pd dan Ibrahim, Prof. Dr. Abd. Syukur Asesmen Pembelajaran Bahasa. Bandung: Rafika Aditama. Zainurrahman Menulis dari Teori Hingga practice. Bandung: Alfabeta. 14th

21 PENGEMBANGAN KELANCARAN BERBICARA BAHASA JERMAN BAGI PEMELAJAR TINGKAT MENENGAH DENGAN SMALL TALK (SEBUAH STUDI KASUS) Audrey Gabriella Titaley Mahasiswa Pascasarjana, Faculties Ilmu Pengetahuan kangaya, Keterilan Salehampan al-Baha'an Baha'an, Keterilan, Salehampan, Baha'an Baha'an, Bahamas, Salehampan, Bahamas Untuk menunjang keterampilan berbicara pemelajar bahasa Jerman khususnya kelancaran berbicaranya, Small Talk diajukan sebagai tugas berbicara autentik yang dapat digunakan dalam pemelajaran bahasa Jerman, karena Small Talkidup-dilakukan sehapankari dalari. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian studi kasus yang dilaksanakan pada kelas bahasa Jerman tingkat B1 dengan 4 pemelajar. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk menjawab dua pertanyaan penelitian yaitu apakah Small Talk dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan kelancaran berbicara pemelajar tingkat menengah dan factor apa saja dari dalam diri pemelajar yang memarangaruhi kelancaruhi. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian tersebut, digunakan teori kelancaran bicara dari Lennon yang menyatakan bahwa jumlah kata merupakan salah satu factor dalam menentukan kelancaran berbicara. Pemelajar berlatih dengan menggunakan Small Talk dalam 3 pertemuan. Data penelitian dikumpulkan dari hasil rekaman percakapan pemelajar dan observasi tidak terstructure. Setelah membandingkan hasil pre-test dan post-test, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Small Talk dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan kelancaran berbicara bahasa Jerman bagi pemelajar tingkat menengah. Selain itu, factor-factor seperti minat terhadap topik, pengetahuan pemelajar terkait topik dan characteristics pemelajar dapat mempengaruhi kelancaran berbicara pemelajar. Keywords: small talk, kelancaran berbicara, pengajaran berbicara, pengajaran bahasa Jerman sebagai bahasa asing, DaF PENDAHULUAN Dalam pengajaran bahasa Jerman guru perlu memperhatikan pentingnya latihan yang mengembangkan dan melatihasa pengetemahelajuan. Latihan tersebut mendukung mereka dalam memahami dan manyampaikan informasi dalam bahasa Jerman. Di tambah lagi mereka juga menjadi mampu dalam mengekspresikan perasaan dan gagasan mereka kepada orang lain. Dengan kata lain, latihan yang diberikan perlu memperhatikan fungsi bahasa yang disebutkan Brown dan Yuli (dalam Nunan, 2001) sebagai fungsi transaksional dan fungsi interaksional. Atas dasar tersebut, guru perlu menjunjung tinggi aspek komunikatif dan autentik dalam memilih latihan yang berorientasi pada integtasi keterampilan bahasa dan composes bahasa, seperti kosakata, tata bahasa dan pelalafalan dan mencerminkan-situidasi hupari dari dal. 15th

22 Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari berbicara menjadi salah satu kegiatan manusia yang tidak dapat dihindari. Tanpa mengurangi pentingnya keterampilan bahasa lainnya, keterampilan berbicara dipandang sebagai cara berkomunikasi yang utama (Celce-Maria dalam Zaraie, et.al, 2014). Salah satu keterampilan produktif ini tidak hanya esensial dalam komunikasi dalam bahasa pertama tetapi juga dalam bahasa asing. Atas dasar tersebut pengajaran berbicara perlu dapat perhatian dalam pengajaran bahasa Jerman sebagai bahasa asing pengajaran bahasa Jerman sebagai bahasa asing. Mengingat tingginya intensitas komunikasi dan interaksi lisan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, tulisan ini akan mengkaji keterampilan berbicara. Berbicara sebagai salah suatu bentuk komunikasi perlu memperhatikan tiga aspek antara lain kajian wacana (linguistic of discourse), kedua, kosakata dan tata bahasa (lexis and grammar) dan bunyi dan pelafalannya (phonology / phonetis) (Hughes, 2002). Untuk itu, dalam merancang pengajaran berbicara guru perlu latihan berbicara yang sesuai, sehingga pemelajar dapat berlatih berbicara menghadapi situasi komunikatif yang mungkin dihadapinya jika mereka berkomunikasi dalam bahasa. Latihan tersebut sebaiknya memungkinkan pemelajar untuk mempertimbangkan konteks pembicaraan seperti siapa lawan bicara, tujuan pembicaraan, dimana dan kapan pembicaraan berlangsung. Di samping itu mereka perlu berlatih untuk menggunakan kosakata dan tata bahasa yang tepat sesuai dengan percakapan yang ingin dilaksanakan. Kegiatan berbicara yang mengintegrasikan kemampuan bahasa dan meminta pemelajar memperhatikan Aspek komunikatif dapat menimbulkan kesulitan berbicara bagi pemelajar seperti yang diketahui peneliti berdasarkan hasil observasi pemelajar bahasa Jerman di Kelas percakapan bahasa Jerman di sebuah Lembaga Bahasa, Mereka MERASA tidak percaya diri untuk dalam bahasa Jerman berbicara. sehingga mereka lebih sering berbicara dengan bahasa Indonesia. Di samping itu, mereka mengalami kesulitan untuk membuat dialog secara spontanously tanpa bantuan dialog model atau teks dialog yang dipersiapkan sebelumnya. Pemelajar mengalami kesulitan dengan mananggapi pernyataan atau pertanyaan dari lawab bicaranya. Akibatnya, mereka mengalami kesulitan berbicara berbicara dalam bahasa Jerman dengan lancar. Untuk mempersiapkan pemelajar untuk berinteraksi dalam bahasa Jerman secara spontaneously, guru dapat memilih tugas berbicara berupa Small Talk. Small Talk merupakan salah satu bentuk interaksi sosial yang bersifat autentik karena tindak tutur ini masih digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari. Selain itu, Urbanová (2003) menyatakan bahwa Small Talk memberikan kesempatan pada pemelajar untuk melakukan perbincangan terkait dengan hubungan intrapersonal, yang berpengaruh pada interaksi yang sedang berlangsung dan yang akan datang. Latihan ini mendorong pemelajar untuk melakukan perbincangan singkat yang terikat dengan konteks tertentu dan mengembangkan Kreatifitas pemelajar untuk membangun percakapan secara terbuka, yang tidak terpaku pada pola percakapan dari model percakapan. Selain itu, mereka dapat berbicara bahasa Jerman dengan lancar dan percaya diri, Pengajaran berbicara dengan Small Talk ini akan diterapkan dalam kelas percakapan bahasa Jerman di tingkat menengah atau tingkat bahasa B1 menurut Kesepakatan Uni Eukasa. Competensi dari pemelajar pada tingkat bahasa kategori mandiri atau lanjutan ini adalah mereka dapat menceritakan pengalaman, kejadian, impian, harapa dan 16

23 tujuan hidup, serta penjelasan atau alasan singkat atau rencana atau pemikiran (pendapat) tertentu. Dengan begitu, mereka dapat berkomunikasi lisan dengan bahasa Jerman dengan lancar, dengan memperhatikan penggunaan bahasa Jerman yang baik dan benar. Berdasarkan latar belakang penelitian di atas, dirumuskan masalah penelitian antara lain (1) Apakah Small Talk dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan kelancaran berbicara pemelajar bahasa Jerman tingkat Menengah? dan (2) factor apa saja dari dalam diri pemelajar yang mempengaruhi kelancaran berbicara mereka? Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memperlihatkan keuntungan penggunaan small talk sebagai latihan berbicara untuk mengembangkan kelancaran berbicara pemelajar tingkat menengah dan factor pemelajar yang dapat membedelakan kelancaran berbarajara pemelajar. penelitian ini dibuat berdasarkan penelitian Hunter (2011) yang berfokus pada penggunaan Small Talk dalam pengajaran berbicara bahasa Inggris sebagai suatu cara untuk mengembangkan kelancaran berbicara, ketepatan berbicara dan kompleksem bitas. PENGAJARAN BERBICARA DENGAN SMALL TALK Pengajaran Berbicara Guru pengajar keterampilan berbicara perlu mengetahui dan memahami factor-factor mempengaruhi cara pandang guru (teachers belief). Kesadaran guru akan pengajaran bahasa Jerman yang baik akan mempengaruhi guru dalam merancang pengajaran berbicara dan mengambil keputusan untuk memilih method pengajaran, tugas, kegiatan guru dan pemelajarya pengajaran, dan sebagainya media. Pertama, guru perlu menyadari siklus tindakan komunikatif dari penutur (communicative behavior) yang digagas oleh Ionova (2009). Seperti pernyataan bahwa keterampilan berbicara tidak dilatih secara discreet, maka siklus berbicara berlangsung dengan memperhatikan berbagai factor. Penguasaan berbicara bergantung pada peristiwa atau kejadian yang sudah berlangsung (prehistory, the given occasions) yang pernah dialami pemelajar, baik secara slow maupun tidak slow dan hal tersebut mempengaruhi pandangan / pola pikir (thought) mereka. Pandangan pemelajar tersebut mempengaruhi pesan yang ingin disampaikan pemelajar baik dalam bentuk teks atau kalimat (text / sentence). Di samping itu, pemelajar juga dipengaruhi oleh tujuan mereka berbicara. Apakah mereka berbicara untuk mengumpulkan informasi (fungsi bahasa transaksional) atau untuk berinteraksi sosial (fungsi bahasa interaksional). Dalam proses memproduksi bahasa (encoding) pemelajar mempertimbangkan 3 (tiga) factor antara lain: (1) Latar belakang dari penyimak baik dari segi sosial, budaya dan psikologis), (2) Gaya Bahasa dan (3) Tingkat Penguasaan baharasa. Setelah mereka mengambil keputusan tentang media penyampaian pesan yang ingin disampaikan baik secara auditif, visual dan nonverbal), mereka mengungkapkan pesan (broadcast) tersebut. Dalam proses penyampaian pesan tersebut, ada hambatan atau gangguan (disorders), yang bisa mempengaruhi, apakah penyimak dapat mengerti pesan yang disampaikan. Dengan begitu, siklus komunikatif dari Penyimak, dalam hal ini lawan bicara pemelajar dimulai dan siklus komunikatif dari pembicara dimulai lagi. Seperti layaknya sebuah siklus, proses ini berlangsung terus menerus, meskipun demikian tidak ada pesan tuturan yang sama, karena pengetahuan 17

24 yang dimiliki pemelajar selalu berubah, sesuai dengan semakin banyak peristiwa yang dialami pemelajar dan factor lainnya perlu dipertimbangkan sebelum pesan disampaikan. Kedua, guru perlu memperhatikan tujuan pembicaraan dan kesesuaianannya dengan latihan berbicara yang dipilih. Dengan tugas tersebut pemelajar dapat berlatih berbicara dalam bahasa Jerman untuk melakukan interaksi sosial dengan lawan bicaranya. Dalam memilih tugas, Bygate (dalam Nunan, 2001) menyarankan bahwa guru perlu mempertimbangkan kemampuan tugas tersebut untuk melatih keterampilan pemelajar dalam mengolah interaksi dengan lawan bicara (management of interaction) danata juga galam kuru kuru (negos perlu menyediakan tugas yang memungkinkan pemelajar berlatih untuk (1) menentukan kapan dan bagaimana ia berbicara, (2) mengganti topik pembicaraan, (3) mengajak seseorang untuk terlibat dalam pembicaraan, (4) mengelup danola pembicaraan. Di samping itu, dengan melakukan negosiasi makna, pemelajar melatih keterampilan untuk meyakinkan bahwa ia dan lawan bicara saling memahami pesan yang disampaikan. (Ibid). Factor factor ini yang akan mempengaruhi guru dalam menentukan tugas berbicara pemelajar. Ketiga, guru perlu memperhatikan aspek berbicara yang ingin ditekankan dalam pemilihan tugas. Penelitian ini over focus pada kelancaran berbicara pemelajar. Oleh sebab itu, guru perlu factor dari latihan berbicara yang menekankan kelancaran berbicara (Richards dalam Zaraie, Gorjian, Pazhakh, 2014) menyatakan bahwa tugas yang menekankan pada kelancaran berbicara berlu memenuhiwa 5 (tahukorkan (limenuhi) berbicara) alami, (2) menekankan pada upaya berkomunikasi, (3) melibatkan penggunaan bahasa yang bermakna, (4) memproduksi bahasa dengan tidak dapat diprediksi (spontaneous) dan (5) mencari kaitan penggunaan bahasa dengan konteks tertentu. Keempat, guru juga perlu menentukan pedoman yang digunakan untuk mengukur kelancaran berbicara pemelajar diperlukan kriteria penilaian. Dari seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Lennon dalam Hughes (2002) bahwa berikut ini adalah tiga factor utama pengukuran kelancaran berbicara antara lain (1) jumlah kata tiap menit (tidak termasuk pengulangan (filled words per minute (repetitions) ,isi) pause) dan (3) persentase T-Unit yang diikuti oleh jeda (percentage of T-Units followed by a pause). Pada penelitian ini, guru akan overfocus pada factor pertama yaitu jumlah kata per menit karena factor ini dianggap practice bagi peneliti. Small Talk Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari Small Talk merupakan salah satu bentuk interaksi sosial. Menurut New Oxford Dictionary of English dalam Urbanová (2003) Small Talk dinyatakan sebagai polite conversation about unimportant or uncontroversial matters, about as engaged in on social occation. Pengertian iniwa membuktikan Small talk adalah merupakan obrolan sederhana yang membahas topik dalam sehari-hari untuk menjaga nilai kesopanan antara penutur dan lawan bicaranya.Selain nilai kesopanan, small talk juga menunjukkan kepada lawan bicara, bahwa penutur menyadari keberadaan orang lain dan berusaha untuk menghilangkan rasa tegang yang muncul antara kedua pihak. Dengan kata lain, Malinowski (dalam Urbanová) menyatakan bahwa obrolan tersebut berguna untuk memecah keheningan baik atas dasar nilai kesopanan, minat atau rasa ingin tahu dari penutur. 18th

25 Tidak hanya penting dalam hubungan penutur dan lawan bicaranya, Small Talk berperan penting dalam komunikasi sosial dalam masyarakat secara umum. Obrolan singkat ini berperan sebagai penyeimbang hubungan sosial antara anggota masyarakat (Ibid .; fir dalam Urbanová). Dengan berbincang dengan anggota masyarakat yang lain tentang topik tertentu yang sesuai dengan situasi sosialnya, penutur menyadari keberadaan mereka dan menegaskan bahwa peran mereka adalah mahluk sosial dan anggota masyarakat. Hal itu ditunjukkan dengan menunjukkan nilai kesopanan mereka. Small Talk memungkinkan penutur menunjukkan yang menurut Brown dan Levinson (dalam Urbanová) sebagai positive face. Topik dalam Small Talk terkait erat dengan konteks sosial dan budaya. Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Edrass et.al. yang membahas pentingnya small talk juga bagi karakter virtual dalam aplikasi komputer. Untuk itu, peneliti melihat pentingnya menyatakan pentingnya menyelidiki latar belakang pengguna aplikasi ini dalam menentukan pemilihan topik Small Talk konteks interaksi sosial menurut budaya Jerman. Masyarakat Jerman secara seimbang memilih External situation dan Communicative situation dengan 41% sebagai topik yang dibahas dalam Small Talk. External situation dipahami sebagai pembahasan topik yang sesuai dengan perannya dalam masyarakat, seperti seseorang mahasiswa akan membahas topik khas mahasiswa, seperti studi dan universitas, teman kuliah, orang terkenal dan topik umum yang danwa film seperti mahasis. Di sisi lain, sesuai Communicative situation masyarakat Jerman juga sering membahas topik umum, seperti: asal, hobi, hiburan malam, kebiasaan pribadi dan kesehatan Pengetahuan ini perlu juga diketahui guru dan dapat membantu yaşa komaşıtaran den jasa dasa dasa ka mangaran the jasa kaşaşa bagi penutur bahasa asing, khususnya guru dan pemelajar bahasa asing dalam untuk melakukan interaksi sosial yang bermakn dan sesuai dengan konteks sosial masyarakat penutur jati bahasa tersebut. Seperti disebutkan dalam penelitian terdahulu, Small Talk dapat digunakan dalam pemelajaran bahasa asing. Penggunaan Small Talk merupakan salah satu upaya guru memperkenalkan pemelajar dengan situasi percakapan bermakna sesuai dengan konteks budaya masyarakat bahasa target.Hunter (2012) menambahkan bahwa Small Talk juga merupakan cara yang konsisten untuk menganalisis dan menanggapi bahasantara, karena guru beranggapan bahwa pemelajar memiliki kompensi bahasa yang berbeda (interlanguage) yang berakibat pada kearahasa product. Small Talk mengakomodasi keberagaman tersebut dengan memberi mereka berkesempatan untuk terlibat dalam percakapan sesuai dengan penguasaan bahasa mereka masing-masing. Di samping itu, pemelajar tidak perlu merasa takut karena adanya pengawasan ketat dari guru, karena guru tidak terlibat dalam percakapan tersebut secara slowing down. Meskipun demikian, pemelajar tetap dapat mendapat umpan balik dari guru jika mereka membutuhkannnya Salah satu pemelajar yang terlibat dalam penelitian ini bahkan menyatakan METODOLOGI Penelitian ini guru merupakermanan sebuah per satu kaselah study. Kelas ini terdiri dari 4 19

26 pemelajar, yaitu 3 perempuan lulusan SMA dan 1 laki-laki lulusan S1. Saat penelitian diadakan mereka belajar di kelas Jerman tingkat B1. Pemelajar dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok berdasarkan prestasi mereka dalam tes bahasa Jerman di bagian tes lisan. Dua pemelajar dengan skillsi bahasa yang baik dipasangkan dengan mereka yang skillsinya cukup baik dan kurang baik Pasangan I terdiri dari satu pemelajar perempuan dan satu pemelajar laki-laki, sedangkan pasangan II terdiri dari dua pemelajar perempuan. Data dikumpulkan dari hasil rekaman percakapan pemelajar dan observasi tidak terstructure. Pemelajar menjalankan pre-test dan post-test untuk mengkur perkembangan kelancaran pemelajar dan mereka akan mendapat tiga pertemuan dengan sesi Small Talk. Topic pembicaraan (Lihat Tabel 2) dipilih mempertimbangkan bahan ajar yang dipelajari pemelajar di kelas bahasa dan minat pemelajar. Sesi Small Talk diadakan dalam kelas percakapan bahasa Jerman dengan mengambil satu jam pelajaran (1x45 menit). ANALISIS DATA Dengan mengacu pada rumusan masalah, data penelitian yang sudah dikumpulkan dianalisis. Sebelum menjawab pertanyaan penelitian, akan diuji terlebih dahulu, apakah Small Talk dapat digunakan sebagai latihan bagi pemelajar untuk berinteraksi sosial. Melihat dari peningkatan durasi sebanyak 8 menit dan 58 detik dan perubahan giliran bicara sebanyak 32 kali (Lihat Tabel 1), small talk telah membuktikan pandangan pendapat Bygate dalam Nunan (2001) tentang tugas yang bisa digunakati untuk mengolaj bicarhapi danapi untuk mengolaj interaks mengajak seseorang untuk tetap terlibat dalam pembicaraan (poin ketiga), mengalir pembicaraan tetap mengalir (poin keempat) dan dapat menutup pembicaraan (poin kelima). Selain itu, pemelajar juga mampu melakukan negosiasi makna, sehingga pemelajar dapat mengerti pesan yang diinformasikan lawan bicaranya. Meskipun demikian, berdasarkan pengamatan peneliti, pemelajar baik dari pasangan I dan II cenderung menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dan non-verbal dengan gerakan tangan. Kadang-kadang mereka juga menanyakan kata dalam bahasa Jerman, seperti terjadi pada pasangan I yang menanyakan kata dalam bahasa Jerman yang berarti kotor (yaitu dirty) dan istilah (yaitu technical terms). Table 1. Hasil Pre-Test dan Post-Test Durasi (dalam Menit) Jumlah Kata Pergantian Giliran Bicara Pre-Test 2: Post-Test 11: Untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian pertama, peneliti membandingkan jumlah kata dalam pretest dan post-test dan hasil penelitian .menunjukkan bahwa terdapat peningkatan sebesar 100 kata. Hal ini sesuai dengan teori dari Lennon dalam Hughes (2002), bahwa jumlah kata termasuk salah satu factor kelancaran bicara dan menegaskan penelitian yang dilakukan Hunter (2011). Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Small Talk dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kelancaran bicara mereka karena cara ini memungkinkan mereka berlatih berkomunikasi dan menggunakan bahasa yang bermakna, mereka menunjukkan bahada saugka gunakifhan mereka pahada bahasa bahasa yang Ciri tersebut 20

27 adalah salah satu ciri penting dalam komunikasi lisan yang dikemukakan oleh Richards dalam Zaraie, Gorjian dan Pazhakh (2014). Untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian kedua, peneliti perlu membandingkan hasil berdasarkan topik dan pasangan berbicara. Dengan membandingkan topik yang dibahas pada saat sesi perlakuan small talk, dapat diketahui bahwa tema Kehidupan di Kota dapat mendukung pemelajar untuk berbicara lebih banyak. Berdasarkan table 2 dapat dilihat, bahwa pemelajar dapat berbicara paling lama dengan jumlah total 11 menit 33 detik dengan, menggunakan total kata paling banyak dengan 378 kata dan terjadi pergantian giliran bicara kali paling sering, sebanyang tentup 55 kali keteha ketika, sebanyak. Table 2. Table Perkembangan Kelancaran Pemelajar Berdasarkan Pasangan Durasi Jumlah Kata Pergantian Giliran Bicara Pasangan Pasangan II Pasangan Pasangan Pasangan Pasangan II II I II Pre-Test 1:40 1: Berlibur di Ruhr area 1:15 1: Kehidupan di Kota 7:54 3: Akhir Pekan 5:40 3: Post-Test 8:46 3: Hasil analisis tersebut di atas perlu dibandingkan dengan rekaman percakapan pemelajar dengan topik Kehidupan di Kota. Berdasarkan rekaman percakapan pada pasangan I yang berdurasi 7 menit 54 detik (Lihat Tabel 2), dapat diketahui bahwa pemelajar banyak melakukan jeda tidak terisi (unfilled pause time), sehingga hal tersebut mengakibatkan lebuanah s pani perjakla lakla perc. Meskipun demikian, Hughes (2002) menyatakan bahwa isu mengenai jeda dalam sebuah percakapan dapat mempengaruhi penilaian kelancaran berbicara tidak bersifat universal, melainkan terkait dengan konteks budaya. Akibatnya perlu dikaji lebih lanjut atau dicari hasil penelitan terkait, yang dapat menjelaskan bagaimana bahasa Indonesia memandang jeda dalam sebuah percakapan. Selain jeda, peneliti perlu memperhatikan perbedaan bagaimana pemelajar mengembangkan topik pembicaraan. Pasangan I membahas topik Kehidupan di Kota dengan menyebutkan perbedaan kota Palangkaraya dan kota Makassar. Mereka bermain dalam situasi bahwa mereka tidak saling quantitative, bukan teman dan bukan keluarga. Hal itu ditunjukkan dengan adanya dengan perkenalan singkat di awal pembicaraan. Mereka membahas topik tersebut, dengan mengkaitkannya dengan kampung halaman dari kedua pemelajar. Hal ini membuktikan cukup banyak prior knowledge tentang kota tersebut. Dalam percakapan mereka menanyakan pendapat mereka tentang kota tersebut, objek wisata yang ada dan masalah lingkungan hidup yaitu sampah. Topic sampah ini muncul dalam pembicaraan mereka karena topic ini muncul dalam bahan pelajaran mereka, karena mereka berhasil mengaktifkan dan bahkan menggunakan prior knowledge mereka saat Small Talk Berlangsung. Berbeda dengan pasangan I, pasangan II yang berbincang selama 3 menit 39 detik (Lihat table 2) membahas topik yang sama dari sudut pandang yang berbeda. Mereka berdua memilih situasi di hold 21

28 to dan mereka berperan menjadi penumpang to yang menunggu kedatangan to masing-masing. Mereka berbicara tentang tujuan perjalanan mereka sampai akhirnya pembicaraan ditutup dengan perpisahan karena to salah satu penumpang tiba. Berdasarkan perbandingan pembahasan topik Kehidupan di Kota, wawasan pemelajar (prior knowledge) dan Kreatifitas pemelar melihat situasi juga berpengaruh dengan kelancaran pembicaraan mereka. Selama pemberian perlakuan, guru berperan menjadi fasilitator dan monitor, sehingga pemelajar dapat mengembangkan percakapan secara spontaneously dan mandiri. Berdasarkan table 2 dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa pasangan I lebih banyak menggunakan kata dan lebih lama melakukan perbicara, sehingga hal tersebut mengakibatkan pasangan I lebih sering melakukan pergantian giliran bicara. Dengan melihat dari characteristics anggota dari kedua pasangan, diketahui bahwa characteristics pemelajar yang tidak homogeneous, baik dari segi jenis kelamin, latar belakang pendidikan (karena salah satu pemelajar dari papasangan I adalah seorang laki-lanulus I adalah seorang laki pemelajar (seperti yang diungkapkan pada metodologi penelitian, bahwa terdapat dua pelajar yang berkompetensi bahasa baik dan dua lainnya berkompetensi bahasa cukup dan kurang baik). Dari segi usia, secara umum pemelajar yang lebih tua dianggap mempunyai pengalaman hidup lebih banyak yang mempengaruhi cara berpikirnya, seperti pernyataan Ionova, factor Peristiwa yang pernah dialamiya, dapat mempengaruhi pesan pesan. Hal ini berbeda dengan 3 pemelajar lainnya yang perempuan dan lulusan SMA. Hal tersebut berakibat kompleksitas pembahasan suatu topik berbeda, seperti pada contoh pembahasan topik Kehidupan di Kota. Penelitian ini juga memiliki keterbatasan bahwa peneliti tidak membagikan kuesioner untuk menanyakan pendapat pemelajar tentang kelancaran berbicara mereka untuk melengkapi hasil penelitian ini. Walaupun Lennon dalam Hughes (2002) menyatakan bahwa kelancaran berbicara adalah kesan yang dibuat oleh sisi penyimak, persepsi pemelajar tentang kelancaran berbicara, seperti adanya peningkatan kepercayaan diri dalam berbicara. PENUTUP Berdasarkan pembahasan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa Small Talk merupakan bentuk interaksi sosial yang dapat digunakan dalam pengajaran bahasa Jerman secara komunikatif untuk mengembangkan kelancaran bahasa pemelajar kahasa ting bahasa. Small Talk dijadikan latihan bagi pemelajar untuk berinteraksi sosial dalam bahasa Jerman secara spontaneously dengan tetap memperhatikan situasi pembicaraan. Penggunaannya diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kepercayaan diri pemelajar untuk aktif berbicara dalam bahasa Jerman dalam kegiatan pemelajaran di kelas dan bahkan di luar kelas. Dalam menerapkan Small Talk dalam pengajaran berbicara bahasa Jerman guru perlu menyadari pentingnya pengetahuan pemelajar tentang topik dan situasi pembicaraan, selain penguasaan kosakata dan tata bahasa Jerman mereka. Di samping itu, guru juga perlu menyadari adanya factor pribadi pemelajar, seperti usia, jenis kelamin, latar belakang pendidikan, kemampuan bahasa dan pengalaman hidup. Factor-factor tersebut dapat mempengaruhi kelancaran mereka berbicara bahasa Jerman. 22nd

29 Penelitian yang dilaksanakan ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas dengan skala kecil yang menggunakan Small Talk sebagai latihan berbicara bahasa Jerman untuk meningkatkan kelancaran berbicara. Penelitian selanjutnya dapat juga mempertimbangkan factor lain selain jumlah kata, seperti akurasi berbahasa. Di samping itu, penelitian selanjutnya dapat dilakukan di kelas yang lebih homogen dari segi usia dan latar belakang pendidikan untuk memperlihatkan pengaruh factor pribadi pemelajar, seperti minat terhadap topik pembicaraan small talk terhadap laterbhan kelancaran. DAFTAR REFERENSI Byles, Rebecca. () An investigation into politeness, small talk and gender. Leading Undergraduate Work in English Studies, Volume 1. Pp Endrass, `B., Nakano, Y., Lipi, A. A., Rehm, M., Andre, E Culture-related topic selection in small talk conversations across Germany and Japan. Intelligent Virtual Agents Volume 6895 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Pp 1-13 Hughes, Rebecca Teaching and Researching Speaking. Pearson: Harlow. Hunter, James Small Talk: developing fluency, accuracy, and complexity in speaking. ELT Journal Volume 66. Pp Ionova, Anna. (2009). Listening and speaking as combined skills of communicative language action in the discussion (in the subject of international relations). IDV Magazine No. 81. Pp Nunan, David. (2001). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom (15th Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, Jack C & Rodgers, Theodore S. (2014) Approaches And Methods in Language Teaching (3rd Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Urbanova, Ludmila. Some Thoughts on the Phatic Communion and Small Talk in Fictional Dialogues. In Theory and Practice in Language Studies, vol. 1: Proceedings from the Seventh Conference of English, American and Canadian Studies (Linguistics and methodology). Faculty of Arts, Masaryk university: Masarykova univerzita, Pp Roy, Lyster dan Ranta, Leila. (1997). Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake: Negotiation of Form in Communicative Classrooms. SSLA 20. Pp level overview A1-C2. Diakses dari pada 27 April Zareie, B., Gorjian, B., Pazhakh, A The Effect of interactional and transactional speaking strategies on teaching speaking skills to Iranian EFL Learners at senior high school level. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW) Volume 5 (2). Pp

30 FORMATION OF THE PERFECT IN GERMAN Kalvin Karuna FKIP Ambon Abstract: To form the perfect one needs an auxiliary verb to be or to have. In addition, you have to make sure that you have to conjugate the main verb into the correct perfect tense. The use of sein and haben with the correct perfect form of the main verb to form the perfect perfect can get the learner into trouble. The aim of this article is to describe the formation of the perfect perfect both the conversion of the verb to the perfect form and the use of the auxiliary verb sein, haben when the perfect is formed. So there are two focuses, namely how to conjugate a main verb of a sentence when forming the perfect perfect and what is required to use the auxiliary verb sein or haben as an auxiliary verb. As a bibligraphic study, the data is collected from some textbooks, then arranged or grouped according to their forms. Based on the data collected, the perfect form of the verbs can be grouped into 6 formulas, namely (a) ge + stem + t / et. (b) ge + vowel change + en, (c) ge + infinitive, (d). repeated invinitive (without ge), (e) stem + t, (f) stem + t / en. In addition, one should be or have application of the auxiliary verb to form the perfect tense not only to verbs with changes in place or verbs that do not express movement, but also to whether the verb is a transitive or an intransitive. the result of this study may be of use to learners in mastering their difficulties in forming the perfect tense. Key words: formation of the perfect, perfect form, transitive and intransitive verb, change of place. BACKGROUND Did I drive the red car or did I drive the red car? The perfect tense is a very important part, in this case, the tense in German grammar, so you should have the perfect tense. Some students insisted that the sentence I drove the car is correct. the reason for this is the verb drive as the main verb of the sentence. Most German learners understand the rule to mean that one has to use the auxiliary verb sein to form the perfect tense when the main verb of the sentence shows a movement from or to another place. The fact that the learners think the sentence I drove the red car is correct is a sign to me that they have not understood all the rules for forming the perfect tense. In other words, they still have difficulties in forming the perfect perfect, both the correct auxiliary verb and the past participle. According to my observation, the main reason is that the German learners are not yet able to use the main verbs to form 24

31 of the past participle, so try to generalize or generalize the rule. For analysis, I first try to study the perfect tense rule of various textbooks; second, I have to collect the perfect form of main verbs as a corpus and then group them. The data can be used to summarize in which situation the auxiliary verbs can be or have used in the formation of the perfect tense and how the main verbs of the sentence are recognized in the perfect form. The aim of this article is to describe the formation of the perfect tense, both the use of the auxiliary verb sein and haben, and the conversion of the verb to the perfect tense when the perfect tense is formed. It is hoped that this contribution will reinforce the prior knowledge of the participants of this seminar so that they can use this tense without doubt in everyday life as well as in class. PARTIZIP PERFEKT Term and usage It is clear to the German learners that the German language also has a tense or tense. Tempus in the Langenscheidswöterbuch (1999) means that; -, tem po ra; Ling; a form of the verb indicating the time (present, past or future) in which the action is taking place. Tempus is therefore a hiponym of tenses. That means under tense one understands the tenses like present, past or future. When talking about the past, the past tense and past participle are inevitable. the clichéd questions that have been asked very often are when do you use the past tense and when do you use the pertizip perfect. According to Helbig and Buscha (1991: 148) the past tense denotes past facts. It is used in common colloquial language as well as in poetic language (it is even the specific tense of the narrative). An optional temporal indication (yesterday, last year, recently, 1992, etc.) can be added to the past tense, but this does not change the meaning of the past. 1. I worked all day (yesterday). 2. He returned the books to me (the other day) 3. He came (3 weeks ago) from abroad. Dreyer Schmitt (2001: 324) describes the past tense as the writing speed for literary and reporting texts, as well as once there was a fisherman who caught a big fish. The fish opened its mouth ... On the other hand, the past participle / the past participle is called the form of the verb that is used in the past perfect or passive middle word of the past: In the sentences ,, Sie hat won "and ,, das Kind was kidnapped "are" won "and" kidnapped "are the participles of the perfect tense. Perfect forms can be created for each verb by adding one of the auxiliary verbs to have and sein to the past participle of the verb. Helbig and Busche maintain that the perfect has three meanings; 25th

32 a. Perfect for describing a past event. In this variant of meaning, the perfect expresses past facts. However, this variant of the meaning can have an optional temporal indication (yesterday, last year, recently, 1992) with it, for example: we visited the city (yesterday). b. Perfect for describing a past event with a resultant character. In this variant of meaning, the perfect expresses past facts that imply a state relevant for speaking time that is more essential for communication than the act time lying in the past. A temporal information can be added optionally. Peter fell asleep (a few hours ago). Peter is sleeping now The teacher arrived (yesterday).the teacher is there now? I bought a hat (in the past week) I now have a new hat c. Perfect to denote a future event The perfect in this variant of meaning expresses future facts that one imagines as completed under a certain point in time. Example: He will have completed his studies by next year. soon he did it. So we can say that we use the perfect tense to express that an action was completed in the past. We use the perfect tense above all when the focus is on the result or the consequence of the action. the above variants can be simplified as follows. Completed action in the past (Usually the result or the consequence of the action is in the foreground.) Example: Yesterday Michael cleaned up his office. (Result: the office is now tidy) He has made up his mind to always be so tidy now. (Result: he no longer wants to be so messy) Action that will be completed by a certain point in time in the future (The future point in time must be recognizable by a time, otherwise we use future tense II.) Example: Until next week he has I'm sure to forget that. Education To form the perfect perfect you need an auxiliary verb and the past participle. the question is: when do you use the auxiliary verb sein and when do you use the auxiliary verb haben. 26

33 Engel (1988: 449) asserts the following; Due to the choice of the auxiliary verb, two major subclasses of verbs can be distinguished. Most of them form their perfect with haben, so all passive verbs and all mandatory reflective verbs. In addition, the following verbs also form their perfect with haben: The non-passive-capable verbs with accusative addition: have, get, etc. work, cry. According to Dreyer and Schmitt, the following verbs form their perfect with sein: a. all verbs that cannot have an accusative object with them (interansitive verbs), but which show a movement from or to a place: stand up, drive, fall, fly, go, come, travel, etc. all intransitive verbs that indicate a change in the state, to a new beginning or new development: blossom, grow up, fall asleep, arise, will come to an end or the end of a development: die, drown , pass away c. the verbs: to be and remain. While all other verbs are used with have: (a). all verbs that can have an accusative object with them en (transitive verbs). : build, do, ask, love, hate a.o. (b) all reflexive verbs, (c) all modal verbs, (d) verbs that cannot have an accusative object with them, but only if they have no movement but the duration of an action or an action To express it conditionally. These include (1) verbs that are used with information on place or time, but do not express movement or a change in state: hang, lie, sit, stand, stick, work, live, (2) verbs that are used with dative objek and no movement Expressing: answering, thanking, threatening, liking, believing, using, harming, trusting, etc. (3) Verbs that indicate a fixed beginning and end point: begin, stop, begin. Past participle Already said, the past participle / the past participle is referred to as the form of the verb used in the perfect or passive voice. In this case, the main verb of a sentence is the focus. In connection with the formation of the perfect tense there are two types of verbs, namely: regular and irregular verbs. Helbig and Buscha (1991: 37 40) classified the irregular verbs as follows: 1 a. ei = he stayed stayed stayed b. ei = i slide slide slide 2 a. ie = o pour pour poured b. ie = o: bend bog bent 3 a. i = a = u find found found b. i = a = o win won won 27

34 4 a. e = a = o help helped helped b. e = a: = e eat aβ eaten 5 a. e; = a: = o: steal steel stolen b. e: = a: = e: read read read 6 e = o = o move moved moved 7 a. a = i = a fall fell fell b. a = u = a carry wore carried 8 au / ei / o: / u: = au / ei / o: u: walk ran walked call called called called push pushing pushing 9 but group (change of consonants?) go went went stand stood stood doing did done On the basis of the grouping one tries to collect and analyze some corpus of the participle. the corpus and result of the analysis can present the following; A. - laugh laugh - laugh - do - do - do - do - live - live - live - land - land - ge-land - wait - wait - wait - et >> die Formula: ge + trunk + t / et << B. - visit visit- visit-t - try try- try-t - learn learn- learn-t - expect expect- expect-et >> the formula: 0 + trunk + t / et << C. - stay, stay-stayed-write-write-write-write-write-write-write-write-write-scream-scream-scream >> ge + VW (ei = ie) + en << D. .. - cut cutting-cutting-suffering-suffering-suffering-riding-riding-riding-arguing-arguing-arguing-28

35 >> ge + VW (ei = i) + en << E ... - pour pour- ge-pour-en - bend bend- ge-bog-en - fly fly- fly-flew-en - flee flee- fled >> ge + VW (ie = o) + en << F ... - steal-stole-stole-melt-melt-melt-melt-scissors shear-shear - swell swell swell-swell >> ge + VW (e = o) + en << G ... - find find- find-find-en - bind bind- bind-bund-en - sink sink -sunk-en - loop loop loop loop loop >> ge + VW (i = u) + en << H ... - read read read read-en - carry carry-carry-carry - call ruf- ge-ruf-en - essen ess- ge (g) essen >> ge + infinitive << I ... - study study- study-t - repair repair- repair-t - earn earn- earn-t - grouping grouping-grouping-t >> stem + t << (verbs on ieren): without ge J ... - leave leave- leave-en - receive reception- receive-en - dismiss dismiss- dismiss-en - forget forget - forget >> infinitive without ge << 29

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