Who is the real hero of Mahabharata
We were able to trace the first traces of epic poetry in India in the Vedic literature - in the hymns of the, as well as in the, and the. We also know from and from the ritual literature that the recitation of such narrative poems formed part of the religious ceremonies at sacrificial celebrations and family celebrations.
The year-long preliminary celebration of the great horse sacrifice included the daily recitation of sagas of gods and heroes. In an order repeated every ten days, stories of particular gods and heroes were told; and two lute players, a brahmin and a warrior, were present, who in self-composed verses () one the generosity, the other the acts of war
of the prince who celebrated the sacrifice. The lute players who sang a real king or the king of the brahmins to the lute could not be absent from the ceremony of the parting of the hair, which was performed in the fourth month of pregnancy with a sacrifice for the flourishing of the womb on the hoping mother. Even after the funeral it was an old custom, but the poet still existed in the 7th century AD. testifies that those who suffered sat down in a shady place outside the house and became older or distracted and comforted by the lecture. And when, after a death or some other serious loss, to ward off further misfortune, the old hearth fire was carried out and a new fire was kindled in the house by rubbing wood, the members of the family would sit, keeping the fire glowing, until the quiet night by letting them tell stories of people who have grown old and of happy premonitions.
It is not uncommon for the ancient texts and next to and other branches of knowledge to list that their study is regarded as a work that pleases the gods, indeed it is even referred to as the "fifth". But that they have a more popular character is shown by the close relationship into which they are brought to. The content of these and mainly formed gods and tales of demons, snake deities, ancient sages () and kings of the past. Sometimes, however, as texts whose recitation will delight the gods, besides and also the
“Men's price songs” () are mentioned and we can address these as the actual forerunners of a heroic epic. But if one wanted to conclude from the passages cited above, as some scholars do, that there was already a collection of narrative poems under the title "Itihâsa" or "Itihâsapurâna" in Vedic times, one would have to assume that the same was true A collection of heroic songs was available as a book under the title "".
In any case, the existence of such compilations or "books" for the Vedic period has not been proven, nor is it likely at all. However, there is no doubt that professional storytellers () existed in very ancient times. It is also certain that by the time of (i.e. in the 5th century BC) there must have been an inexhaustible supply of stories in prose and verse - and - as a kind of literary common property, from which the Buddhists and Jainas as well as the epic poets drew.
In addition to this literature, as we can briefly describe the common literary possession of narrative poems attested for the Vedic period, there must have been actual epic poems, heroic songs, and probably also cycles of epic songs in ancient times. For the two epics that have survived to us alone, and yet represent only the precipitate of a long preceding period of epic poetry. Long before these two epics existed as such, songs of the great battle of nations, which is the subject of the
and have been sung of the deeds of, the hero of. But it is also inconceivable that the struggles of and and the adventures of were the only subjects of poetry. Certainly many other heroes and great events in many other princely families have also been celebrated. Not all of that old heroic song, the presence of which we must assume, has disappeared without a trace; Much of our two epics have been preserved in ruins and remains.
The bearers of this heroic poetry were the bards, commonly called, who lived at the courts of kings and sang or recited their songs at great festivals to proclaim the prince's glory. They also went into battle to sing about the heroic deeds of the warriors from their own eyes. So it is himself who describes the events on the battlefield to the king. These court singers formed a special caste in which the epic songs were passed on from sex to sex. Epic poetry will have arisen in the circles of such bards, who are at any rate very close to the warrior class. Traveling singers, called, who learned the songs by heart and sang them to the lute in public, then took care of the spread of the heroic songs among the people. So it is told - albeit in a late song - how the two sons of, and, wandered about as wandering singers and recited the poem learned by the poet in public.
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