What are some useful technical abbreviations

Appendix A3 Signs and Abbreviations

1. Some units of measurement and their abbreviations

Time units
hourH
minutemin
seconds
Length measurements
kilometrekm
HectometerHm
Decameterdam
meterm
decimeterdm
centimetercm
millimetermm
Micrometerµm
Area dimensions
Square kilometrekm2
HectaresHa
Ara
square metersm2
Square decimetersdm2
Square centimeterscm2
Square millimetersmm2
Room dimensions
Gross tonnageGT
Gross register tonGRT
cubic meterm3
Cubic decimeterdm3
Cubic centimetercm3
Cubic millimetermm3
Measure of capacity
HectolitersSt.
Decaliterdal
literl
deciliterdl
Centiliterscl
Millilitersml
Mass units
tont
HundredweightZtr.
kilogramkg
Hectogramed
GramG
decigramdg
centigramcg
milligrammg
Microgramsµg
Energy units
Ton of crude oil equivalentsTOE
KilojouleskJ
JoulesJ
Gigawatt hourGWh
Megawatt hourMWh
Kilowatt hourkWh
Watt hourWh
Watt secondWs
Power units
megawattMW
kilowattkW
wattW.
Power units
Kiloampsn / a
ampA.
Voltage units
MegavoltMV
KilovoltskV
voltV
Pressure units
barbar
millibarmbar
PascalPa
HectopascalshPa

Without a point, you write internationally defined units of measurement in science and technology. In official texts, units of measurement should be written out in full (except in the appendices).

2. Characters and abbreviations

Some symbols and abbreviations from statistics and household

Nothing
Less than half the unit used0
No evidence available:
Uncertain information
estimate*
Not availablen. v.
Corrected informationr
Less than<
Greater than>
changeΔ
averageO
Weighted averageMP / ØP
Break in the statistical series
percentage%
Annual change in%% AT
Mean annual growth rateAT THE
In memory ofz. E.
Millions)Million
BillionBillion

Some abbreviations for bibliographies and footnotes

The following abbreviations are written out in full throughout the text, especially in legal acts.

tapeVol.
VolumesVol.
Pages)S.
next pagef.
following pagesff.
Clause§
Paragraphs§§
Last change: 5.5.2021