How do you defeat a guerrilla

Ralph wrote:

Thank you all! In particular, I found Karlheinz's lists very illuminating.

One question: how did Napoleon deal with the guerrillas in Spain?



Napoleonic is not my field.

But as far as I remember, pretty rigorous. There is this famous picture by F. de Goya of insurgents being shot. I can tell you from my history book from school, which for three decades still stands honorably on my shelf for three decades, Times and People, Volume 3, Schöningh - Schrödel.

"In Spain, Napoleon encountered a completely new type of opponent. He had to fight an uprising that drew its strength from the participation of broad strata of the people. Accustomed to dispose of peoples, countries and crowns, Napoleon had put one of his brothers on the Spanish throne . But the Spaniards rose against the king. They saw in him the intruder who wanted to push through reforms against the Church and the Church. So national and religious reasons penetrated. The clergy in Spain called on the Spaniards to resist. The thoughts of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution had hardly found its way into Spain, and the spirit of the French Revolution took effect even where it was rejected.
Napoleon could not master the war in Spain. His strategic talent failed before an enemy who was not to be confronted in open battle but could lurk in every corner. For the first time, the emperor encountered opponents fighting for what they saw as their own cause. That set them apart from the mercenaries he'd dealt with before. The guerrilla war between the Spaniards and the French troops was cruel on both sides. Prisoners were tortured, villages cremated in retaliation and their residents shot. Until the fall of Napoleon, the guerrilla war continued to smolder and tied up French troops. An English army, led by the future Lord Wellington, intervened in the fighting. It was the only mercenary army that fought successfully against the French army in the long run. The continental barrier was riddled with holes in Spain. "

The question that the textbook then asks is also indicative: "Show the novel nature of the resistance that Napoleon found in Spain." And today I would add: Show parallels between the Spanish guerrilla war against Napoleon and the Vietnam War! And you will find a lot.

However, as far as the novelty is concerned, I would be very surprised if there hadn't been a comparable constellation somewhere in the world before, but I can't give an example now that would really fit - the Jews against the Romans?

Either way, the text above describes, if you will, the important elements of guerrilla warfare.