Is kh a separate letter in Hebrew

Who and when I came up with Hebrew. Differences between languages

The two most common adverbs spoken by modern Jews are the languages ​​of Hebrew and Yiddish, which, despite the linguistic similarities that exist, are still two separate independent entities. The character of the formation and development of each of them needs to be studied in more detail to see their functions, assess the total richness of each dialect and understand how these languages ​​changed under the influence of the factors. What's the difference in Hebrew and Yiddish?

The history of Hebrew

Modern Hebrew takes its origin from the Hebrew language in which the sacred torus is written. He became independent from the XIII century BC. BC, separating from the northwestern sub-period of the Semitic languages. Hebrew went a long way before accepting the exact appearance it has now.

It turned out that due to the difficult fate of the Jewish people, who often found themselves under the oppression of other countries and did not have a state of their own, had to lead a nomadic lifestyle. At the same time, they spoke without their own dialect in the language of the state in which children lived and had grown up. Hebrew was considered a sacred language, it was only used to study the Talmud and to write Torah scrolls. It wasn't until the early 20th century, thanks to the efforts of the group of enthusiasts led by Eliezer Ben-yehud, that Hebrew became the opposite language for many Jews. It has been modified and adapted to modern realities. The official language has been Israel since 1949.

What's the story of Yiddish?

It is believed that the Jewish language of Yiddish appeared in southern Germany in the Middle Ages (around X-XIV centuries). At the beginning of the 18th century IDYSH (Jews of Ashkenazi origin) were accounted for and this language was distributed throughout Central and Eastern Europe. In the 20th century, around 11 million Jews around the world used Yiddish in everyday life.

Despite the fact that a Yiddish alphabet borrowed from Hebrew, its base is German dialects. Thanks to numerous borrowings from Hebrew, Aramaic, German and some Slavic dialects, Jiddish has an original grammar in which the Jewish alphabet, the words with the German root and the syntactic elements of Slavic languages ​​are surprisingly combined. To give a straight answer to the question, "What's the difference in Hebrew and Yiddish?" - You should explore the features of each language. The study should begin with the history of the appearance of languages ​​as well as their structures and morphology. It is necessary to devote enough time to study writing, for it is precisely for that the history of the development and change of language can be followed.

Languages ​​Yiddish and Hebrew: alphabet and grammar

Perhaps the main similarity of two languages ​​is a single alphabet. It consists of 22 letters, each of which has a special design and, depending on the place in the word (basic or finite), conveys a certain meaning. Both languages ​​use an old European square letter made up mostly of consonant letters.

A square letter means that all letters are written using a special font that resembles small squares. In addition, there are no vowels in this alphabet, they are replaced by auxiliary badges that are placed on the letter designations in the form of dots or strokes.

The grammar and morphology of Identical and Hebrew are absolutely not similar, for this reason both languages ​​are perceived by rumor in different ways. For example, the words "danke" in Yiddish and in Hebrew have nothing to do with: "A thanks" and "TODA!" As you can see, the Idian version of the word has a German root while the Eastern focus is felt in Hebrew.

What is the difference in font between Hebrew and Yiddish?

In both languages, only lowercase letters are used, separated from each other, and words are written to the right. The main difference between the iIDIAN script from Hebrew is that it does not use a non-associated system (colons and strokes), the vowel letters are written to convey soft sounds, which makes it easier to read texts. Unlike Yidynsh, Hebrew (the alphabet of which also has 22 letters of a square font) has no vowels, so you need to know the entire root system of words or remember the phones to understand what the text is in question. Let's draw an analogy, for example, Russian. If the rules of the Hebrew grammar rules were used, the words would be written without vowels; H. "BG" could be read as "god" or "running". Therefore, many words in the texts Written in Hebrew are subtracted first and only then are they translated depending on the context.

Features Hebrew

The main highlight of modern language is its special grammar and morphology. It observes a clear structure, the words of which are modified strictly according to certain rules. Hebrew is a logically structured language in which there are practically no exceptions, for example in Russian. Yiddish has a more flexible structure that is able to adjust a rule of a legal language (German or Hebrew). That's the difference (Hebrew and Yiddish).

During the Revival period, Hebrew went through many changes. One of the most visible grammar that has occurred: if in an old version the order of words in the suggestion was vso, it is now SVO (primarily the verb and the encore on the go). The values ​​of many ancient words have also changed, new based on common roots.

Structure of idic.

The characteristic of Idisch is that he holds the best qualities of three languages: from the German he inherited a rich culture and strict order, Herkky inflicted wisdom and ulcer on him, and Slavic dialects presented him with soft diet and sad notes.

Yiddish was distributed over a large area, causing many dialects of the language to emerge. They can be divided into western and oriental: they spoke first in western Germany and Switzerland (now this dialect is already dead), but the eastern followers are actively used on this day in the countries of the Baltic states in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine .

Differences between languages

Exploring the history of the origin of two languages, we can generalize conclusions about them. Despite the similarities between them, namely the entire alphabet which still has small differences and roots belonging to the Hebrew and Arama dialects, these two languages ​​are absolutely two different peace. What's the difference in Hebrew and Yiddish?

If you straighten out all the differences between these languages, you can get a pretty large comparison chart. Here are the most obvious specifics:

  • Yiddish belongs to the German language group, and modern Hebrew is a new, improved version of Hebrew Hebrew.
  • Yiddish has a more flexible control structure with words, for example in Hebrew there are only two ways to form a multiple: You have to add ים (IM) or å (von) to the end of the root of the word. In Yiddish, all the rules for the declension and formation of new words depend on the root itself, in it they consist of a large number of exceptions.
  • Of course, it is impossible not to notice absolutely different sounds of these languages. The hearing is perceived as softer while Yiddish has the payoff stress which has a strong effect on a tongue making it ringing and energetic.

If you look more carefully, you can see that Yiddish is a link between Germany and Eastern Europe: thanks to him, the many words are of Germanic origin and a small amount of credit from an ancient Hebrew penetrated into Slavic languages. It is surprising to see how words with German roots are combined with their completely different pronunciation from the German pronunciation. Many words borrowed from Hebrew, thanks to the head of Idish, firmly entrenched in the everyday life of the German residents. As a scholarship once said: "Sometimes neo-Nazis use up old European words that don't even guess."

Yiddish had a noticeable impact on several Slavic languages: Belarusian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, and even some Russian words were taken from it. Thanks to him, the dialects of the Slavic language corporations acquired the colourfulness, and Yiddish itself, again throughout Europe, contacted almost all local dialects and soaked up the best qualities of each of them.

Now in Hebrew is spoken all the Jewish population of the State of Israel, numerically 8 million people. Yiddish uses around 250,000 people worldwide, mostly - the elderly and representatives of the oldest religious communities: Haredim and Hasidi.

Bible period (XII-II centuries. Bc.)

The post-ball period (1st century BC E. - 2nd century AD)

Hebrew language Talmud and Masoretov (III - BB.)

Swell:

  • to sing (Religious Poetry in Hebrew)
  • Midrashi. (Commentaries and Interpretation of the Old Testament)

During this time you invented the system of "vowel" cards in the "consonant" bleaches ("Nobodyot") in one of the currents of the Jewish religion called the "masses" ("guardians of traditions"). This will allow you to standardize the pronunciation of vowels when reading the ancient Hebrew texts.

Hebrew is greatly enriched by the Aramaic vocabulary (this process continues into the medieval era). There is a restructuring of the verb system - the previous types (perfect and imperfect) are restored; As a result of the restructuring of the system of verb tenses, some "high quality" parishes become independent words.

Medieval Hebrew (-XVIII century)

  • Spanish poetry (Yehud Galevy, Ibn-Ezra, Ibn-Gebierol, Alcharisa)
  • Commentaries on the Bible and Talmuda (Rashi, Maimonide, Nakhmanid, Moses Mendelson)
  • Kabbalistic literature.
  • scientific literature (philosophical, medical, geographical, philological, historical)

Hebrew is not a spoken language, but the Jews are still studying it, reading religious books about it, writing work, communicating with Jews from other countries. It comes from the usage that is the main fighter of Hebrew from Hebrew is Aramaic. Several aids are produced: Ashkenazi (Europe - except Spain) and Sephardic (mainly in Islamic countries, Spain, Greece, Fre. Italy). Sephard Norm retains the characteristics of an ancient pronunciation better, but it lost the distinction between panties and long vowels. Ashkenaz Norm acquires some of the characteristics of German pronunciation; Long vowels are joted in, there is a significant restructuring of the system of vowels and consonants. The name adjective eventually becomes an independent part of the language.

Hebrew XIX century

Literature in Hebrew is becoming part of European culture.

Swell:

  • Newspapers and magazines in Hebrew.
  • Novels, stories, games, novels, etc. (for example the books by Mejher-SPhorim).
  • School textbooks for all subjects of education.

Reborn Hebrew (from the beginning of the XX century)

The language, considered dead for the 18th century, becomes the language of everyday communication, the state language of the State of Israel. This was made possible thanks to the efforts of a number of enthusiasts, the most famous of which is Eliezer Ben-yehud.

The idea of ​​reviving Hebrew was an integral part of the ideology of Zionism as such, thereby breaking the legacy of the diaspora and the languages ​​in which the Jews who lived under extraterrestrial rule lived. In this regard, the 1935 words of Haim Waitman - scientist, liberal, European intellectual and future President of Israel said: " We arrived in Eretz Israel so as not to copy the life of Warsaw, Pinsk and London. The essence of Zionism is a change in all of the values ​​that Jews have learned from foreign cultures under pressure».

Since the Union of Mutual Support of German Jews (Aidfene), the first teacher training college for Hebrew teachers was founded in Jerusalem in 1904, and from the moment of opening in 1905 in Jaffa high school "Herzliya" - the first high school in the World where teaching was done in Hebrew. The main key to success has been the voluntary (and sometimes forced) choice of Hebrew as the language of everyday communication in the families of the Second and Third Wave Repatriates arriving in Eretz Israel in kibbuts and agricultural settlements in the first quarter of the 20th century.

In the early years of the State of State, Israel, the policy of introducing Hebrew was extremely difficult. When Hebrew, when Hebrew finally ousted other Jewish languages, the attitude towards these languages ​​on the part of the Jewish state finally softened significantly. In 1996, laws to preserve cultural heritage in Yiddish and Ladino were passed.

Revival Hebrew

The enrichment of the language occurs in currently also the efforts of scientists of the Academy of the Hebrew Language in Jerusalem. This is done in the following way:

1. Change the value of the old words

  • word aniva. (עניבה) meant a special arc in the Mishmem (II century) and then in the Middle Ages (Maimonide meets). Now it's a tie.
  • word aleuh (אלוף) marked in antiquity of the "Tribal military leader, thousandth" of the word elephant (אףף \ u003d thousand), is now the military rank "General" as well as the "Champion".

2. Formation of new words from existing in the roots in the laws of Hebrew grammar (that is, this word did not exist) and analogously with the already existing words.

  • mAKHSHEV. (מחשב) \ u003d Computer

(literally: "computer", from the base Hishev (חישב \ u003d (er) calculated)

analogous with old words

  • Mazlege (זזזג) \ u003d "fork",
  • Mazrech. (זזזק) \ u003d "syringe", etc.

3. Feature of language - "Fought Design", Phrase of two or more nouns ( smichut), with the first word sometimes changed according to certain phonetic laws (this form is called up nisha).

  • BEIT SEFER. (בית-ספספ) - "school", from bat (בית \ u003d home) + sefer. (ספספ \ u003d book)
  • SHEM MISHPACH. (שש מפפפפ) - "Last Name", from shem. (שש \ u003d name) + mishpach (מפפפה \ u003d family)
  • Bat Yam (בת-ים) - "SEE daughter", "mermaid" of bat (בת \ u003d daughter) + pit (ים \ u003d sea)
  • Kupat-Holim. (קופפ חולים) - "Hospital Fund" from kupa (קופפ \ u003d cashier) + holim (חולים - patient (Mn. H.).

Sometimes such phrases become one word.

For example:

  • kaduragel. (ככוגגג) - "soccer" ( kadur. (ככור) \ u003d ball, enter (גג) \ u003d foot)
  • migdalor (גגגלור) - "lighthouse" ( migdal (גגגל) \ u003d tower, or (אור) \ u003d light)

4. Comprehensive words (as in Russian university, common farm or Kps.)

A double apostrophe (") is usually raised between the penultimate and last letter words.

  • name of the scientist Rashi. - Rabein shlomo yitzhaki. (ש"י \ u003d our teacher Solomon Son Isaac)
  • word tapus (פפוז \ u003d orange) happened from the confluence of two words: "Tapach" and "Zakhav" (literally \ u003d golden apple)
  • old testament name in jewish - Tanah. (תנ"ך) that is as decrypted Torah, Nevim, KetowvimThat is, the "Pentateuch, Prophets, Writings"

5. Borrow foreign words

Examples: phone (טלפון), university (אוניברסיטה), Summary (אוטובוס), yanuary (ינואר) etc.

Hebrew in the USSR

Surname

Word itself ְְִִִית Hebrew Translated from Hebrew as an adjective "Jewish". The feminine genus here is used because the noun פפפ safa ("Language", "Language"), to which this is an adjective by default, a female family in Hebrew.

Letter and reading

  • Hebrew uses the Jewish alphabet for the letter in t. square font, like languages ​​Aramaic and Yiddish. The square script was borrowed from Hebrew from Aramaic in 6V. Bc e .; Before that, a different alphabet was used in Hebrew, almost identical to the nearby Phoenician.
  • Square script is the type of alphabet (in Hebrew - alef bet.). This means that each character (letter) corresponds to a specific sound, as opposed to non-alphabetic systems (ancient Egyptians, Chinese) in which each character instructs the concept (IDE-Ogram) or a combination of sounds (syllable letters).
  • In the Hebrew alphabet of 22 letters, all letters correspond to the consonant sounds. In Hebrew there is not a single letter that initially corresponded to a vowel, but some letters (e.g. ALEF, Ain, YUD, VAV) have stopped naming only consonant sounds and are also used to denote vowels. Writing the Letters One by one - right to left - the letters are not connected (although it is not always in the manuscripts), and the rows follow one another from top to bottom.
  • In the overwhelming majority of texts, the phone symbols are not written. Teams are only used in
  • religious texts
  • songs and verses.
  • textbooks for schools and ulpanov,
  • books for children
  • sometimes - in strange words
And some other texts.

In European literature there is often a comparison of the unfinished text in Hebrew with the text in European (for example, Russian) language with missed vowels. For example, the word ספספ is compared to the writing of the KNG, and it should be noted that the latter can be found in Russian as both "Book" and "Connea". In fact, such a comparison is illegal. The characteristics of the Hebrew grammar are such that the vowels are not the root of the root, and therefore the transition of the vowels in the word corresponds to the Russian language, not a pass of all vowels, but the transition of the vowels in some (not all) suffixes and in some (not all) ends. For example, when writing Russian words analogously with Hebrew, we get such a number of individual words: "program", "program", "program", "program", etc.

  • Ease of text reading without heading on determining sounds w., over and and Insert letters vav. and yUD.which are not written in the published text. Such letters are called matres lecture (literally "read mothers").

Jobs

Roughened symbols are used to designate vowel noises. Sound pronunciation. a, e and oh, Approximately corresponds to the Russian pronunciation. Consultations in Hebrew are never palettalized (they are not softened) before vowels "and" or "E (He").

symbol
Jobs
Surname
Jobs
Icon graphic description.As read
ַ Patahorizontal feature under the letterbut
ָ KamezSymbol "t" under the letterbut
ֵ Zere yourself.Two dots horizontally below the lettere.
ֶ SagolLocated three dots under the letter
As an equilateral triangle
e.
ִ Chirik.Point under the letterand
י ִ Chirik with iodineDot under the letter followed by the letter iodineand
ֹ Holyam Haser.Point from aboveover
ֹו Holym maleWavy letter with a point from aboveover
ָ Kamez kathan.Symbol "t", under the letter (also like Kamat)but
ֻ Kubambut.Three dots under the letter diagonallyw.
וּ Shukuk.The letter wall with a point in itw.

In addition, some unloaded sounds ( approximately) can be transferred with the symbol seam ְ (two dots under the letter vertically) or a combination of seams with symbols sagol, kamez and pata (Each is placed under the letter and the last is called from the beginning with the addition khatafa.)

Hataf direction:

symbol
Jobs
Surname
Jobs
Icon graphic description.As read
ֳ khataf-kamez.The kamez + seam To the rightunencumbered sound over
ֲ khatafa pata.The pata + seam To the rightunencumbered sound but
ֱ khataf-sagol.The sagol + seam To the rightunencumbered sound e.

The fact that a sound corresponds to several symbols is explained by the fact that in antiquity they denoted different sounds, for example in degrees of longitude. So, pata - was a short tone but, but kamez - long. Likewise the other vowels ( e and, oh,). In modern Hebrew, the difference in longitude disappeared, but the difference in the letter remained.

Letters

Main article: Jewish alphabet

In the Jewish alphabet of 22 letters.

LetterNumerically
importance
(Haematria)
SurnameTransliterationPronunciation (MFA)
afterward
See.
volumedefaultAshkenazic.HebrewRussianInternationalSimplifiedIsraeliAshkenazic.Sephardreconstruction
MishnaBible
א 1 AlephAlephאָלֶף " ʾ " [ʔ, -] [ - ] [ʔ, -] [ʔ, -] [ʔ]
ב 2 Beth (vet)Base (white)בֵּית b, B.b, ḇ.b, V.[b, v][b, b ~~ v][b, β][b]
ג 3 GamelGamelגִימֶל G.g, ḡ.G.[ɡ] [ɡ ~ ɡ ̊] [ɡ, ɡ ~ ɣ] [ɡ, ɣ] [ɡ]
ד 4 DaletDololeדָלֶת d.d, ḏ.d.[D][D ~ d̥ ̊][D̪ ~ ð][D̪, ð][D ̪]
ה 5 he.Hello.הֵא (h), x, gh, ḏ.H.[H ~ ʔ, -][H, -][H, -][H, -][H]
ו 6 Vav.Wentוָו in, y, roughlyw.w.[v][V ~ v̥][v][W][W]
ז 7 ZainZainזַיִן z.z.z.[z][z ~ z̥][z][z][Dz]
ח 8 capHE IS.חֵית H.H h`, x.[χ ~ ħ] [x][ H ] [ħ, x][ħ, x]
ט 9 TetTpp.טֵית t.t`[t][t][T̪][T̪ˁ][T̪ '']
י 10 iodineYUD.יוֹד j.y.y.[J][J][J][J][J]
כ ך 20 coffee shopKof (yard)כָּף k, H.k, ḵ.k, kh.[k,][k, x][k, x][k, x][k]
ל 30 RingedLomedלָמֶד l.l.l.[L][L ~ ɫ][L][L][L]
מ ם 40 MemesMemesמֵם m.m.m.[M][M][M][M][M]
נ ן 50 NUNNUNנוּן n.n.n.[n][n][n̪][n̪][n̪]
ס 60 The sameSomahסָמֶך ofs.s.[s][s][s][s][Ts]
ע 70 AinAinעַיִן ` ` ` [ʔ ~ ʕ, -] [ - ] [ʕ, ŋ, -] [ʕ, ɣ] [ʕ, ɣ]
פ ף 80 PE (PE)Pey (Fei)פֵּא p, f.p, pH.p, pH.[p, f][p, f][p, f][p, ɸ][p]
צ ץ 90 Tsad.Tsody, Codion.צָדִי c, C.s`[ʦ] [ʦ] [ʦ] [Sˁ][ʦ ", ʧ", t͡ɬ ']
ק 100 Kof.Cow.קוֹף tok.k.[k][k][k][Q][k ']
ר 200 revengeRaisרֵיש r.r.r.[ʁ] [ʀ] [R ~ ɾ][ɾ] [ɾ]
ש 300 Mature (sin)Mature (sin)שִין sh, S.š, ś sh, lh.[ʃ, s][ʃ, s][ʃ, s][ʃ, ɬ] [ʧ, t͡ɬ, s]
ת 400 TAV.Tov (sov)תָו t.t, ṯ.t, th.[t][t, s][T̪, θ][T̪, θ][T̪]

Remarks

  • In Israel, the standard names of letters with elements with Ashkenazi names are basically used.
  • The Russian transliteration given in the table is approximate.

Finite letters.

Five letters have two different designs - one at the beginning and the middle of the word, the other at the end:

At the beginning and middle of the wordAt the end of the word
Coffee shopכ
כ
Kaf sofit.ך
ך
Memesמ
מ
Meme Sofit.ם
ם
NUNנ
נ
Well-sofit.ן
ן
Peterפ
פ
Pei-Sofit.ף
ף
Tsadikצ
צ
Tsadik Sofit.ץ
ץ

One of the versions of the appearance of finite letters is that since the words were written in ancient times, the definitive letters were required to divide words. Perhaps the particular form of writing was all letters, but only these five were reached. In a related Arabic there remains a different writing of original, middle and finite letters.

Another version - the last form is historically more ancient, and the Inveronika appeared during the curtains: the tail, going down, began to bend towards the next letter, and only at the end of the word, when he stopped the stylus, A Tail was left.

Multiple alphabet letters can also indicate a sound

  • kof. ק I. coffee shop כ read. to
  • vav. I. I. vet ב Read. in the
  • het I. haf כ read. H.
  • tet ט I. tAV. ת Read. t.
  • sweet. ס I. syn ֹֹ read. of
  • ain ע I. aleph Both are not read

The letters: א, ק, ט, ס (and not their "pairs" with the same sounds) are necessarily in words of foreign origin and non-Jewish names, for example: The word "text" in Hebrew will look like "טקסט" and not " כככת "or non-Jewish name" Kostya ":" קוסטיה ". Exception: in the case when the word is borrowed from the English language instead of a digraph th. Written letter tAV. ; To emphasize the difference in pronunciation, sometimes to the left of the letter tAV. Put apostrophes: " ת . Example: The name of actress Reese Withserspoon in Hebrew is as יס וית"ספון (pay attention to " ת ) Because in English it is written as Reese Wi th.erspoon Similar to the letter tAV. often used in words of Greek origin instead of the letter θ (for example in words aesthetics (iVR. אסת טיקה), athletics (iVR. את לטיקה), mathematics (iVR. מת טטיקק) This concerns the first of two T).

For the correct letter it is necessary to save words along with your writing, as different words can have the same pronunciation of the meaning and the writing.

For example:

  • word OsherStart with the letter aleph - אושר means "happiness",
  • word OsherStart with the letter iin - ושר means "prosperity".

The reason for the two-letter designation of a sound is the same as the symbols of the heads: in ancient times each letter was used to denote their sound (including the letters) aleph and iin) Well, now the difference in pronunciation has disappeared and the spelling has been preserved (the exception is the differences in the speech of immigrants from Arab countries).

  • There is no difference between the capital (capital city) and lowercase letters in Hebrew.
  • letter tires (syn) Two different phonemes that were pronounced / w / or / s / today. In the published letter they differ in points: the first prominent point is near the right "teeth" and syn- near the left side. This distinctive point is not used in inconspicuous texts and the word, along with the pronunciation, must be memorable.

What does the letter "" sound like?

For a long time, experts have not been able to answer when the letter ב (Beth or veterinarian - depending on presence in the letter of the Dagesh symbol, is usually lowered when writing) conveyed the sound "B"? Many linguists believed that the letter ב only conveyed the sound of "b". The discussions were shludred until the clay slab was deciphered with the text told about the lambs running through the field: their blurry was recorded with the letter "ב".

  • Some letters change their pronunciation (and in some textbooks and names) depending on the situation in the word. At the beginning of the word these 3 letters are ( kaf / haf., beth / Vet. and pey / Fay.) are as pronounced as pronounced to, b. and p., at the end of the word - H., in the and f.. In the middle of the words are both pronunciation variants. In borrowed words, this rule does not affect the letter Peterthat can be pronounced as at the end of the word p.that the letter is designated by the usual initial and middle drawing (פ).

In a published letter exploded letter coffee shop, bet and Peter can be distinguished from their friction-ready couple haf, vet and fay to a distinctive point mentioned in these letters (consonant with this point becomes an explosive) dahash. In the unfinished texts, this point does not exist, and for correct reading of words it is necessary to know either the words themselves or grammatical laws, according to which the pronunciation of the letter is determined. In order to know the words in this case, it is necessary for the correct letter to be there

  • sound in the can be transmitted by letters vav. and vet,
  • sound to - letters coffee shop and kof.,
  • sound H. - letters haf and het.

Note that in contrast to the letters tires and synHere we are not talking about letters denoting different phonemes, but about the variants of the pronunciation of the same letters that correspond to the ancient allophones of the same phonemes. In inconspicuous texts, you can sometimes check the pronunciation of the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word by picking up an appropriate acquaintance for the pronunciation of a single word in which this letter is at the beginning or at the end of that word.

For example:

michtav. (Sound H. - The Haf or Het?).

Solution:

Most words have a three-letter root in Hebrew. In that word it is Ktt.. Since the word is translated as "letter", I remember a single word: Cats (\ u003d "I write"), it is heard there toThat is, first and foremost the root is worth the letter coffee shop (She is haf). Therefore in the word michtav. First and foremost in the root there is a letter Haf, and not Het. We note here that in Russian sometimes can check the spelling by finding one-sided words.

Pronunciation of ashkenaz

The main differences between the Ashkenazi pronunciation of Hebrew from the Sephardis adopted in Israel are reduced to the following.

  • The emphasis in Aekensic Hebrew Hebrew always falls on the penultimate syllable, and in Sephard the place of ancient accent is lowered (in most cases, on the last syllable, and in some grammatical forms, and in some categories of words - for the penultimate. In the latter case is of course the same focus in Ashkenazic and Sefardo variants).
  • In the Ashkenaz pronunciation, the difference in the pronunciation of the letter passed ת . In ancient times, depending on its position in the word in the word, this letter could either be read as T.or as a slit sound, similar to English th. in one word Think.. In the Sephardic debate this distinction was lost, and so was the letter ת Always as read T.. In the Ashkenazi version, the slotted pronunciation is retained, albeit in the modified form - instead of an interzaboy sound Θ began to pronounce the sound OF.
  • In ancient Hebrew there was a discrimination of vowels in length, meaning vowels were long and short. In modern Hebrew there is no difference in the length of vowels, while the change in sound was different in Sephard and Ashkenazic versions. In the SEPHARD version, the pronunciation of long vowels coincided with the pronunciation of slips (for example, "short A" and "long A" are pronounced equally as "A"). Long vowels in the Ashkenazi version A, O. and E. changed her tone: long BUT began to pronounce as ABOVE (and then in southern dialects, for example in Ukraine, moved W.); Long ABOVE Moved to Dissong OH (and then in dialects in Lithuania and Belarus - in Dißhong HELLO); Long E. Moved to Dissong HELLO. Long sounds W. and AND In the Ashkenaz pronunciation with the corresponding briefs fell, that is, these two sounds are pronounced equally in the Ashkenazic version and in the Sephardic version.
  • As a result of the above-mentioned shift in emphasis, the vowel o formed in the place of the original lef underwent a reduction and began to be pronounced in the words borrowed from Hebrew to Yiddish words E. (Although further explicitly in the actual Hebrew texts, for example when reading prayers ABOVE).

א. The slogan of the revival of Hebrew was the words: "Jews, Hebrew!" In the mass consciousness of Israelis, this motto is associated with the image of Eliese Ben-yehuda (Perelman), which has become a symbol of the revival of Hebrew. In fact, somehow a sick friend Ben-Yehuda said, "Speak in Hebrew and have a rest." It's hard to tell if he was joking.

ב. Contrary to popular belief, the first newspaper appeared in Hebrew either two years before the birth of Ben-Yehude - the newspaper "ha magid" began in 1856 in the Prussian town of Like. In 1860 the edition in Hebrew - the weekly "ha-melitz" - appeared in Odessa. By 1882, 19 newspapers and magazines had already been issued in Hebrew in the world - fewer than in German, but more than Yiddish.

ג. Eliese Ben-Yehude's lifestyle was to transform Hebrew into a living tongue, an everyday language. Contemporaries This task seemed unreal, and many and simply refused. In addition, there were objective difficulties, for example the question: which pronunciation is preferred - ashkenaz, sephardic or yemen? Despite the fact that Ben-yehud and his like-minded people were immigrants from Europe, the choice was made in favor of the Sephardic pronunciation in order to accurately reflect Hebrew biblical times.

ד. Upon arriving in Palestine in 1881, Ben-Yehuda began speaking only in Hebrew to members of his family. In 1882 he had a son, Ben-Zion, who officially became the first "Hebrew child" - that is, the first child for whom Hebrew was not learned, but his mother tongue. The family environment predicted a bleak future for the child, who argued that in such a linguistic environment he could not develop normally. In fact under 4 years of age the Benzion did not speak at all. Even Ben-Yehude's wife could not stand and secretly began to speak to the child in Russian; As it was revealed, a family quarrel broke out between the spouses and during their - Oh, miracles! - Ben-Zion spoke.

ה. In order to communicate with the child, Ben-Yehude had to appear with many words without it being impossible to present a child's vocabulary. Thus, apparently elementary words appeared today, such as "Buba" (doll), "Ofanaim" (bicycle), "Glid" (ice cream), etc. In total, Ben-Yehude invented about 220 new words, and about a quarter of them did not become anchored in Hebrew.

Å The success of a family experiment led to Ben-Yehude's example being followed by four other families - they also began speaking only in Hebrew to newborn children. Any family that accepted a similar solution would make Ben-Yehude's wife a cake as a gift. To imagine how difficult it was to promote spoken Hebrew among the masses, suffice it to say that in 20 years she only had to lose 10 such pies ...

ז. However, even such modest achievements only increased the number of opponents of Ben-Yehude. The bunarian character didn't add him to the followers either. Created by the Ben-Yehudo Society of Hebrew "Safa Brora" ("Clear Language"), many others were referred to as "Safa Arura" ("Damned Language"). Hebrew opponents even sent a Denokleiter denunciation to the Turkish authorities accusing Ben-Yehude of anti-government sentiments, and he was arrested for a while.

. Founded in 1886 in Rishon Lexing School "Khaviv" became the first school where all subjects were taught in Hebrew. Tutorials for most of the articles in Hebrew simply did not exist, and teachers had to be assembled during the educational process. The textbook of Jewish history was written by Ben-Yehuda himself.

ט. Educational institutions turned out to be the main front of the "language war" - in them Hebrews had to compete with German, French and English. The turning point was in 1913: Hebrew followers in the Haifskogo Technological Institute (TRANTION) defeating German followers who were considered the language of science and technology (this victory was especially noteworthy when we were at the forefront of German apologists by In 1922, shortly before the death of Ben-Yehude, the "language war" ended, the British mandate authorities the status of the official language Eretz Israel.

É. One of the most important achievements of Ben-Yehude was the creation of the Hebrew Language Committee, which became the main Ruger of the movement for the revival of Hebrew and returned to the Hebrew Academy (analogous with Académie Française) after the establishment of Israel. The Hebrew Committee established uniform rules of grammar and pronunciation, and determined which new words would be included in the language. The struggle with blind borrowing from strange words has become one of the most important aspects of the activities of the committee and the academy.

כ. The work of the Academy of Hebrew brought much fruit. Automatic horses managed to avoid in many cases - the Ivrite Academy, proposed by the Academy of Foreign and International Words, loved and secured by all language spheres. In particular, against many other languages, Hebrew costs, without borrowing such words as "computer", "taxi" or "institute". At the same time, it is curious that the name itself is a borrowed academy. The extensive explanation of this seemingly strange fact is provided on the academy's website itself.

ל. Today the Hebrew Academy tries to offer Hebrew options to replace common technological terms from English. Academy specialists have developed an alternative to such words as "Internet", "Blog", "Tokbek", "Flashka", etc. Will your people accept? The time will show.

From The First Medical Dictionary of Hebrew, Dr. Aaron Meir Mazya, former head of the Hebrew Language Committee. The masses born in Belarus were an extraordinary man: an engineer, a doctor, a philologist, a farmer, a public figure, and even a rabbi rolled into one. It is its modern Hebrew, among other things, a special form of the noun that is used to denote diseases.

נ. Incidentally, the surname of MAZYA is an acronym of the words "from the descendants of Israel Isaerlin". Common Jewish surnames, Katz, Chaz, Segal, Bloch, are also acronyms, and as far as I know this phenomenon is only present in Hebrew.

ס. The aforementioned son Eliezer Ben-Yehude Ben-Zion (better known under the pseudonym Itamar Ben-Avi) became one of the most famous characters in Eretz Israel. At the age of 15 he sent a letter with a "modest" request from Baron Rothschild: to finance the creation of the Jewish army. So that the recipient would not doubt his fighting spirit, he translated "Marceles" into Hebrew.

ע. Moldov, Itamar Ben-Avi concluded that Hebrew should become the dominant language of the entire Mediterranean. He argued to anyone willing to hear that even the geographical names of the region (Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Marseille) come from Hebrew. It is less known that Itamar Ben-Avi also shared for a while the idea of ​​translating Herupt into Herusträge's Latin schedule (to make it more accessible to other nations) and even published a newspaper in Hebrew Latin script. Today such an idea can cause laughter.

פ. In 1972, Ben-AMOC and NATA Ben-Yehuda published the first dictionary of Hebrew slang, completing the process of converting Hebrew into a living language. As a paradox, most words of foreign origin in Hebrew slang, so the circle is closed. But here the rapid development of the language did not stop, and today the bold slang expressions of thirty years sound like perfect archaisms.

צ. In the past few years, voices have been distributed in which the Revival of the Revival of the Hebrew asks itself. Followers of this view argue that Hebrew not only has never died but never even fell into a lethargic dream, leading to evidence that this proves some facts. In particular, the Israeli professor Schlomo-Harmatie noted that in many European universities from the Middle Ages the teaching of medicine was carried out in Hebrew, that is, Hebrew was not exclusively a language of prayer.

ק. In the same harmony, the founders of the United States of America seriously avoided the possibility of announcing Hebrew through the state language. Also, as you know, they gave Jewish names to children and settlements.

ר The famous writer SH.-Y. Agnon, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, somehow asked the second wife, Ben-Yehude Hemedu, "How is your spouse viewed as the father of the Renaissance of Hebrew because many of them spoke Hebrew in Jerusalem?" Hemda's answer was very succinct: "You didn't have as successful Prachics as I did."

ש. Be as it may be in the fall of 2007, UNESCO officially recognized Eliese Ben-Yehude's role in the revival of Hebrew and expressed its intention to attend the celebration of the 150th anniversary of his birth. Usually this organization is difficult to suspect of making love to Israel, but even they could not ignore the uniqueness of Ben-Yehude's life and success.

ת. However, the peculiarities of the revolution happened in the last hundred and small years of the revolution, the writer EFRAIM KISON, author of the famous aphorism: "Israel is the only country in the world where parents teach their mother tongue to children."

To the inexperienced ear of the Russian man, Hebrew and Yiddish - interchangeable concepts can also be said synonyms. But is it so and what is the difference? Hebrew and Yiddish are two languages ​​that Jews are spoken in, but they differ from each other and age and origin and areas of use and many others. This article is devoted to the main differences between the two linguistic systems. But first you need to give a general description of both languages.

Hebrew: origin.

difference

Based on all of the above facts regarding these two languages, what's the difference? Hebrew and Yiddish have some fundamental differences. Here you are:

  • Hebrew older than Yiddish for several millennia.
  • Hebrew belongs exclusively to the Semitic languages, and in the heart of Idisha, besides Semitic, there are also Germanic and Slavic roots.
  • Write text on idioch without a heading.
  • Hebrew is much more common.

The original porters know and the other language can explain even better what the difference is. Hebrew and Yiddish have a lot in common, but the main difference is most likely not in vocabulary or grammar, but in the context of usage. This saying went about 100 years ago before the European Jews: "God speaks in Yiddish on weekdays and in Hebrew - on Saturdays." Then Hebrew was only tongue for religious broadcasts, and everything was told in Idishe. Well, now the situation has changed to the exact opposite.

When it comes to the language of the Jews, everyone immediately remembers Hebrew. In fact, the Jews gave the world 2 other languages: Yiddish and Ladino.

What are their similarities and differences?

Hebrew , the language of the Jews that has existed for over three thousand years; The ancient Hebrew dating literary monuments preserved by Biblical tradition belong to the 12th century. or 13 V. Bc e. (For example. Deborah's Song, Judgment. 5: 2-31), the first inscription is believed to be on 10 V. Bc e.

Hebrew is the language of Semitic origin. Semitic languages, besides Hebrew, also belong to Aramaic, Arabic, Akkad (Assiro-Babylonian), Ethiopian, and some other languages ​​from the Middle East. Especially close to Hebrew, Phoenician and Ugar languages, which belong to him in the Canaan branch of the Semitic group of languages.

In many ways, since Hebrew that Hebrew belonged to the Semitic group of languages, the Jews mistakenly and attributed to the Semitic peoples. From here and went anti-Semitism; Jews themselves are representatives of the Hassidic peoples.

History Hebrew has six periods:

Bible (up to the II century BC He) - The books of the Old Testament are written on it (IVR. HA-SFARIM or TANA);

Afternoon - Dead Sea Scrolls (Cumranian manuscripts), Mishna and Toseft (the influence of Aramaic and Greek languages ​​is traced);

Talmudic (Masoretsky) - lasted from the III to the VII centuries, when Hebrew stopped, the language of everyday communication stopped, but was preserved as the language of written and religious languages. Monuments of this period include some parts of the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmudov;

Medieval (up to the 18th century) - diverse religious literature, works on Kabbalah, scientific and legal treatises, secular poetry. During this period there is a traditional pronunciation of various Jewish communities: Ashkenaz, Sephard, Yemen, Baghdad, etc .;

Khaskali epoch (IVR. "Education", cultural and educational Jewish movement of the XVIII-XIX v.v.v.) - Hebrew becomes the language of high literature, which is enriched with neologisms;

Modern - from the end of the 19th century until today. The revival of Hebrew as a spoken language.

Briefly about the peculiarities of the Hebrew alphabet. For the letter in this language, the Jewish alphabet is used (IVR. Alef-Beth) in the version of a square font, consisting of 22 consonant letters. Five letters have additional ties for the final letters in the word. Four consonant letters in modern Hebrew are used to hold vowels (these letters are called "reading mothers").

The complete record of the clause is with the help of the heading (IVR. "Nacudote") - invented in the masoretic period of the system of dots and drops that are next to the consonant letter. In addition, Jewish letters can be used for a numeric record as each letter has a numeric compliance (hematria).

The letter is carried out on the right, there is no difference in European languages ​​between capital and lower case letters. When letters, letters are usually not connected.

The renaissance of Hebrew began at the end of the 19th century, at this point when it was long dead (so-called languages ​​that are not used for everyday communication and are not indigenous to everyone). Hebrew is the only example that the dead language can come alive! A significant role in the revival of Hebrew belongs to the Eliezer Ben-Yehude (he is the same lyre-intshok Perelman). The Ben-Yehude family became the first Hebrew-speaking family in Palestine, and the elder son, Eliezer - Ben-Zion (later accepted the name Itamar Ben-Avi), became the first child to be native Hebrew.

The norm of pronunciation of the modern Hebrews was the pronunciation of the Jews-Sephardov. In the 80s of the XIX century, Hebrew became the language class at the Alliance School (Jerusalem).In 1884, Ben-Yehuda founded the HA-ZVI newspaper (Russian Gazelle; Eretz Hawi is the land of Gazelle - one of the ancient poetic names of Israel). He also has credit for the establishment of the Hebrew Committee, the 1920 Academy of Hebrew, and the creation of a "complete dictionary of ancient and modern Hebrew". Thanks to the activities of Ben-Yehude and like him, in Hebrew, there are about 8 million people today.

Yiddish (from Jewish, "Jewish") - The language of the European Ashkenazov Jews, which historically refers to the Mediterranean dialects of the Verbkhnemetsky subgroup of the West German group of the German branch of the Indo-European languages. Yiddish appeared in the Rhinapays between the X and XIV centuries, entering a large array of words from the Hebrew and Aramaic languages, and later from the Romance and Slavic languages.

Yiddish has a peculiar grammar in which the German root is combined with elements from other languages. Slavic elements were also brought to the German sound system of the tongue - for example, hissing Slavic consonants.

By the Second World War, 11 million Jews communicated Yiddish. Today, the exact number of speakers of the language is unknown. The data of the census of the late xx - early XXI suggest that the greatest number of Yevi-speaking Jews live in Israel (more than 200 thousand people), the United States (about 180 thousand), Russia (more than 30 thousand), Canada (more than 17 thousand) and Moldova (about 17 thousand people). In total, different dates live on the planet from 500 thousand to 2 million people who speak Yiddish.

Yiddish has a western and eastern adverb in which a large number of dialects are distinguished. On Wednesday by Hasidov, the United States emerged on the basis of the Transizan version of Yiddish, in the USSR in the qualities of the Idian language, the version with the phonetics of the Belarusian-Lithuanian (North) and the grammar of The Ukrainian (Southeast) Dialect was considered. In the 1920s, Yiddish was one of the four state languages ​​of the Belarusian SSR.

In the language of Yiddish, the square Hebrew alphabet is used as in Hebrew. The direction of the letter coincides.

About the fate that I experienced in Yiddish, refer to the article "Israel Speaking Yiddish" by A. Lokshina:

"European Jews spoke Yiddish for over a thousand years. At the beginning of the 20th century, literature in this language was a series of Jewish theorists of some "territories" for the people who had no home. One such concept appeared as Idishland, a special Jewish homeland. For the first time this term introduced an idioshist and public figure by Haim Zhitlovsky, who wrote that the spiritual and national house is the place where "our national language is present and where every breath and word helps our national existence People».

In Palestine, however, Jews whose "motherland" until the text was created created a physical home that was identified with one of the languages. So the part was exhibited for the whole. The choice of Hebrew as the national language was directly the result of the choice approach of Rannesionist ideologues in different periods of the history of the Jewish people. A halo romance was surrounded by a diving rebellion, the militant period. Antiquity has become a source of legitimation and the object of admiration. Bible language was perceived as part of the era of pure thoughts and goals. The culture of the "Idiscland" has undergone a decisive reassessment. A revolutionary blow, it was robbed of the occupied place.

The traditional Zionist imperative consisted, among other things, in the fact that the new settlers who arrived in Palestine be completely abandoned by all and their usual homeland, in these countries where they had lived for centuries. The key point for immigrants from Eastern Europe, according to the thoughts of traditionalist historians, was the Hydish's refusal in favor of Hebrew, the exclusions of which emphasized Zionism. The Zionist ideologues rose from the fact that a new nation was to be formed at Eretz-Israel, nothing in common with healing Jews. Yiddish was understood as the "jargon" associated with the culture of the rejected Galuta. A number of leading Israeli researchers write about the personal and collective refusal of Halutssim pioneers from the Diaspora language as the most important element of the Zionist "birth of re-".

It is essential that it be the Hebrew language, which became the basis for a new Israeli culture. The question to which the study is actually being answered is raised: "What happened to Idissch with its culture and the carrier of this language?" In the land of Israel?

Yiddish was not only rejected as the tongue of Galuta, but also as the language of ancient Ishuvas, with which the pioneers of the Sionist wanted nothing in common. Indeed, the Jews of European descent who lived in Eretz Israel in the mid-19th century spoke to most of it. They existed at the expense of Haluki - system of fees and donations from Jewish communities outside the country. The macho language old Ishweight differed from the image of an independent and proactive Jewish community that creates Zionists.

The rejection of the early Zionists was so general that, on any stage, they were ready to give him preference not only to Hebrew and the complex of cultural ideas that goes with it, but even to Arabic culture. As guided by romantic European oriental ideas, Halutssim considered some of his elements (clothing, food, individual inches) to be diametrically opposed to Jewish diaspora life and therefore "new Jews" are suitable for "introduction" on Wednesday.

Due to the fact that the coarse ideology is negatively related to the use of phrases in Hebrew and words from other Jewish languages, the idiang expressions have "faked" to the foreign bodies. In this way, much of the same thing about "bleach" runs into modern literary Hebrew, as well as Hebrew slang of the 1940s and 1950s. Havver quotes Josef Guri, who pointed out that about a quarter of a thousand idioms of spoken Hebrew are trashed with Yiddish.

Until 1914, the language of instruction in Jewish educational institutions in Eretz Israel was declared exclusively Hebrew. In 1923, the mandate authorities named Hebrew with one of the official languages ​​of Palestine along with English and Arabic. Ishuva's leaders and ideologues certainly created a dominant narrative in which the existence of an alternative culture, or even subculture, was unacceptable with his tongue because he cast doubts on the completeness of the success of the Zionist project.

It seemed that the victory of Hebrew was complete. The official installation for "Forgetting" Yiddish was so overall that even a long conflict even between Hebrew and Idishev turned out to be from collective memory. One of the pillars of Israeli historiography Schumel Etinger mentioned in his fundamental work as a key event that led to the victory of Hebrew in Ishuva schools ... Hebrew-German "Sprachstreit" of 1913 (then the Jewish-German charity organization "Ezra" made an introduction to German as a language of teaching in Ishuva technical schools, which caused a strong response).

Most of the residents of the new Ishuva (the Jewish community after the 1880s) in the first decades of its existence remained natural bearers of Yiddish and continued to speak in that language. At this point, ISHUW could not yet function fully using only Hebrew. Neither the founders of Tel Aviv nor the Zionist immigrants in new settlements spoke in Hebrew overnight. However, it didn't often bother using the adjective "Hebrew" instead of "Jewish": Tel Aviv - "Hebrew" Jaffa district, "Hebrew" workers, etc.

In the order that Yiddish and Hebrew coexisted in the Jewish communities of Europe and each of them occupied its place in the system of the established centuries, Zionist Palestine was radically transformed. Hebrew was intended for everyday use, but at the same time it remained a high-level cultural language, and Yiddish was fully delegated. Officially, it became an anomaly, although de facto remained the language of many, if not the majority, including the 1930s. The symptomatic words of Ben-Gurion used in propaganda the Zionists to use many languages, but for "our cultural work, but the only language remains Hebrew." In fact, this approach has been returned to the situation of the traditional separation into the high culture language (Hebrew) and the utilitarian language of everyday life (Yidis).

Idisch's dual position was that it was a mother tongue, loved and rejected by ideological motives at the same time. Leading Israeli historians tend to ignore the psychological difficulties of "rasping" immigrants from Eastern and Central Europe into Hebrew. Studying the Havver allows us to speak about the cultural and spiritual crevices that emerged at the crossroads of ideology and personal experience.

Havver notes that Israeli historians of literature concerned with the history of Hebrew culture are essentially ignoring the existence in Palestine of Idian literature. Meanwhile, during the period of the second Alia (1904-1914) literature on Yidiš in Eretz Israel was quite violent. The possibilities of the IVRITE literature of the time were very limited, as the normative style of the new prose in Hebrew appeared at the end of the 19th century, that is, even before it became a reality of spoken Hebrew.

The work of a considerable number of Ishuva writers does not fit the Zionist narrative. They wrote in either Yiddish and Hebrew in Yiddish at the same time. The vitality of Yiddish literature in Ishuv is explained, among other things, in comparison to Ivrite literature in Eidis; it was characterized by diversity, flexibility and gave more opportunities to show social and ideological differences in society. This enabled the Idian writers of Palestine, separate from the Zionist aspirations, to create a polyphony that reflected the heterogeneity of the early Ishuva.

Writers, whose creativity is analyzed in the book, reflect different generation, ideological and aesthetic trends. The author considers the work of the broken Brochse writer of the second Aliyah period, whose early work was primarily of a non-ordentist nature and offered a more complex and diverse vision of Palestine than the books of some of his (and our) contemporaries idealized the Zionist identity of the first stems. Another hero-Haver, Avrom Rives, also tries to reflect the cultural and ideological diversity of Ihhuva, his works "inhabited" by the Arabs and Christians. Until his death in the mid-1960s, Identisch and the poetess Ryashi Potash wrote ...

Furthermore, Hebrew literature was not free from Idish influences either. The analysis of the structure of suggestions and phrases in such unconditional Israeli classics as Yosef Haim Brenner and earlier Agnon assumes the decisive influence on the language structures of Yiddish. Brenner was usually one of the few public figures in Ishuva who ventured to speak of Yiddish as a "Zionist", "the language of our mothers blowing our lips".

Havver not only returns to the reader of the Ichush culture of Ihhuva and introduces core competence to the knowledge that introduces unknown texts into the cycle - it mixes the continuous line, offers an alternative view of the history of Israeli literature, builds its "shadow" "Version. She manages to prove that Yiddish literature was very popular and widespread in Ishiva - suffice it to say that between 1928 and 1946, 26 literary magazines went to Eretz-Israel. In addition, in the late 1920s, the Idish culture in Ishuv appears a kind of "renaissance" (including in the new Hebrew city of Tel Aviv - 1927, the number of reader requests for newspapers in Hebrew and Yiddis in the Tel Aviv Public Library was about the same). This is partly due to the arrival of immigrants of the fourth Alia (1924-1928) (the so-called "Aliya Grabski" from Poland) who was widespread from Idisem and often far from Zionism (not accidentally some contemporaries and researchers accused them to bring them to the Palestinian validity values).

At the same time, the Board of Directors of the Jewish University in Jerusalem was approved in 1927 by the Plan of Creation at the University of the Department of Idisch. However, at this point this project was impossible to implement. Against the discovery of the department were an influential Zionist (including Menachem Solyshkin), as well as the radical organization of the Meginges of A-Safa A-Hebrew ("Brigade of Defenders of the Hebrew Language"), which was mainly composed of the students of the Herzliya high school, organized by Hamim Zhitlovsky during his visit to Palestine in 1914. "Brigade", founded in 1923, operational until 1936, especially in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. In public opinion, she contacted the revisionists' legal issues. His activities were mainly directed precisely against the use of Idisha (it is suggested that the English language did not cause any negative reaction from the members of the brigade. In connection with the esteemed recognition of the department, posters were introduced in the mourning frame: "The department for Zhargon - the destruction of the Hebrew university "and the jargon department - idol in the Hebrew temple" (Jewish university published in many then published and speeches were compared with the temple). As you can see, the young secular eagerness of Hebrew wrote about Yiddish as a target of Baheikhal - a pagan idol in the temple, - that is, rabbinist sources that help to compare the intention to establish the department for Yiddish with the desecration of the temple by Greco-Syrian conquerors and Roman emperors in the first century. Yiddish, the millennial cultural language, was considered illegal "jargon" the illegal "jargon" of someone else threatening unity, threatening the formation of a new Hebrew nation, the symbol of which was the university - his "temple".

And it wasn't until 1951, after the destruction of the Idian culture due to the Holocaust and the policies of state anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union, as well as after the establishment of the State of Israel, when Yiddish was no longer a threat to Hebrew, the Idian department was finally opened. His creation marked the beginning of the legitimation of Idish in Israeli culture. Dov Sadan, speaking at the opening of the department, said that Yiddish helps keep Hebrew. Here, too, however, the Idish can be reduced to the status of a secondary cultural phenomenon that exists in the service of Hebrew. The hierarchy of two languages ​​became apparent when Hebrew was Mr. and Idish - a servant.

However, as Hainver has shown, the role of Identical in Ishuva's life went well beyond the function of preserving the revived Hebrew. The same Sadan-Dov, described in Yiddish as the Hebrew servant, used completely different terms in 1970. Speaking about Jewish bilingualism in front of the Yiddish audience in New York, the Sadan described the ICHISH writers' unique vision of Ishuva: "This particular group was important - it opened new horizons and new land for literature in Yiddish: the land of Israel, not as childhood nostalgia or tourist the subject, but as Ishuva's daily experience and struggle. "

Haver does not concern the period of existence of the State of Israel. But we do know that Yiddish has never been cast out of collective memory and has not been forgotten. With the beginning of Great Aliya from the USSR / CNN, which coincided with the awakening in the Israeli society of interests in its roots and the cultural legacy of the diaspora, the European Jewish language received state support. Currently, Idish clubs operate across the country, the Tel Aviv Yiddish Theater operates in Tel Aviv, the Idish has a number of Israeli writers (most of them have people from the Soviet Union), in the Jewish University in Jerusalem and at the University of Bar-Ilan, IDYSH is underway in this language and artistic literature. In some schools in Israel, Yiddish is included in the curriculum. "

Interesting facts about Yiddish:

1) At the beginning of the 20thIn the 19th century, Yiddish was one of the official languages ​​of the Belarusian Soviet Republic, and the famous slogan: "The proletars of all countries are back!", Written in Yiddish, immortalized the emblem of the republic.

Proletarian Fun Ale Lender, Farainicat ZiH!

2) One of the reasons for adopting Hebrew as the official state language is the incredible resemblance of Itisch to German, which was quite inappropriate after World War II.

3) Some words from the Russian Zhargon attracted us from Yiddish, for example: Ksiva, Pole, Paras, Fraer, Shm, etc.

4) Professor Linguistics Tel Aviv University Paul Veksler expressed himself with a hypothesis that Yiddish did not arise from German, but from the Slavic language group, but the fans of this explanation were practically not found.

5) Three sayings that best revealed the difference between two languages ​​by 50 to 15 years:

Hebrew is taught and Yiddish is white.

Whoever does not know Hebrew is not educated, who does not know yidisha, is not a Jew.

God speaks Yiddish on weekdays and in Hebrew on Saturdays.

All of these sayings tell us that the century before the century was a talkative, everyday language that knew absolutely everything, and Hebrew, on the contrary, was the sacred language of the Torah that not every Jew was familiar with. But those times passed, and everything changed to the opposite.

Jewish-Spanish (Sephard, Gudesmo, Ladino), spoken and literary language of Jews of Spanish origin. Until the Second World War, a considerable number of bearers of the Judeo-Spanish language lived in Greece and Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and to a lesser extent in Romania. In the 1970s. The number of carriers of the Judeo-Spanish language in the world reached 360 thousand, of which 300 thousand lived in Israel, twenty thousand - in Turkey and the United States, and fifteen thousand in Morocco.

Most of the dictionary and grammatical structure of the Judeo-Spanish data come from the dialects of the Spanish language of the Middle Ages, although the strong influence of Catalan and Portuguese languages ​​is also traced. The influence of Hebrew manifests itself mainly in the sphere of religious terminology. The Judeo-Spanish language vocabulary contains a significant amount of credits from Turkish, Arabic, French, and Italian languages. In the eastern Mediterranean region, Jewish-Spanish has different names: Judezmo, Ladino, Romantik, Spannol. Jewish-Spanish media are used from 19 V. The name of Judezmo, literally "Judaism" (Mi. Yiddish - Idyshkait). Although the name "Ladino" was widely used, the Judeo-Spanish language was adopted in modern science, while Ladino was only anchored by the language of Bible translations, which contained many credits and hubs from Hebrew and copied Hebrew syntax. The dialect of the Judeo-Spanish language common in North Africa is known as the hack.

The Judeo-Spanish language enjoys a Jewish alphabet with a number of changes for rendering specific background. Early texts are written with or without square letters, but most print editions use the so-called Rashi letter. In Turkey, the Judeo-Spanish language has enjoyed the Latin alphabet in the press since 1928.

From one point of view, the Jews living in Spain used the same language as non-Jews, but their language retained many archaisms and gained an independent existence after the expulsion of the Jews from the country in 1492 The Judeo-Spanish language used in the modern Science, widespread, however, had long before 1492 among those in attendance by Hebrew words, but also due to the influence of other Judeo-Romance languages ​​and greater susceptibility to Arabic influence.

In the field of phonetics for the Judeo-Spanish language, the in-law of vowels is over \ u003e UE and E \ u003e dh, that is, which is distributed in the Castilian dialect of Spanish but does not appear in many words of DIFTHONGICATION. In Judeo-Spanish, the distinction between three groups of consonants has been preserved.

The morphological differences of the Spanish language are extreme for changing the kind of nouns; The unique forms are used in the value of the plural and the reverse. Some location forms are used differently than in literary Spanish; The archaic forms are preserved in the series of a number of verbs of the present period; The use of diminishing forms of nouns and adjectives is more common than in modern Spanish.

The syntax of the Judeo-Spanish language under the influence of different languages ​​is markedly different from the syntax of the Spanish language.

Languages ​​close to and obviously from the Judeo-Spanish language are the Jewish Catalania - the language of the immigrants from East Spain as well as the Judeo-Portuguese language. The latter received independent development in Holland, Northern Germany and Latin America. In 18 BC the Judeo-Portuguese language adopted Negros from Dutch Guiana (modern Suriname), calling him Joatongo (Jewish language). Only in the 19th century. They switched to Dutch.



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