Was Charlamayne of France black

France is an important cultural nation that has decisively influenced the fate of Europe for centuries. It is the most touristic country in the world and offers a variety of historical and natural attractions.

  • France exists in its current form since 853.
  • The current head of state is the president Emmanuel Macron.
  • France is the third largest in terms of area Country Europe to Russia and Ukraine.

Paris - Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité: The motto of France The core demands of the French Revolution ushered in the age of democracy in Europe. It is characterized by strong contrasts in the landscape and a unique way of life Country Western Europe is the most visited country in the world with around 83 million tourists annually.

France: The Early History

The Celtic Gauls, after whom Julius Caesar named his Roman provinces west and north of the Alps, are considered to be the original French. After the fall of the Roman Empire around the year 500, the Franconian came Clovis (Clovis in French) from the Merovingian family to the throne. He is in France revered today as the first French king. The Franconian Empire underwent its greatest expansion Charlemagne (Charlemagne), who was crowned emperor in 800.

Shortly thereafter, the gigantic empire split into two parts: the West Franconian Empire, from which France was to emerge, and the East Franconian Empire, which many centuries later became Germany. Philip II was the first king in 1190 to be called the King of France (Roi de France) and no longer the King of the Franks.

The time of the wars of religion

In the course of the following centuries, the French monarchy consolidated itself through wars of conquest. The Hundred Years War brought the French national heroine, who is still revered today Joan of Arc (Joan of Arc), a simple girl whom God supposedly commanded in a vision to France to be freed from the English. Although she was able to end the siege of Orléans at the head of an army, she was later burned at the stake for her efforts.

The 16th century was marked by religious disputes between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). A bloody massacre of the Huguenots with thousands of dead in 1572 went into the French as Bartholomew's Night history a. 1589 climbed with Henry IV for the first time a Bourbon took the French throne. With the Edict of Nantes he introduced religious freedom and calmed the situation. At the same time, France began to rise to become a major European power.

France: absolutism and revolution

Dominated in the 17th century France European politics and culture. Louis XIV, the Sun King, presented himself as the absolute absolute ruler in the state and had the magnificent Palace of Versailles built as a new center of power. Just a few decades after his death, the decline began with the loss of the American and Indian colonies.

The American War of Independence, in which France supported the colonialists against England, developed into an outlet for the growing discontent of the French people. The French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille prison in Paris on July 14, 1789: the Ancien Régime, the absolutist monarchy, was history and was replaced by the First French Republic.

General walked out of the turmoil of revolutionary politics Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as the winner. He was crowned Emperor of France and fought numerous wars. In the conquered areas he established modern achievements of democracy such as the Code civil (civil law) and the Code pénal (criminal law), which formed the basis for democratic constitutions worldwide.

France today

Experienced in the 19th century France a renewed economic prosperity with a global colonial empire, before the First World War led to great destruction in the north and to social upheaval. During the Second World War the State between the German occupation zone in the north and the free zone in the south under the administration of the Nazi-dependent Vichy regime.

The second half of the 20th century was marked by the collapse of the colonial empire and the associated wars in Indochina and Algeria, as well as efforts towards European reconciliation and unity. In 1958 the now Fifth Republic with a new constitution was brought into being, which continues to this day.

France: politics

At the top of the French politics stands the popularly elected president who controls all other institutions. Currently, this is Emmanuel Macron, who was elected in 2017, with his self-founded liberal party En Marche started. The president delegates his power to the prime minister and the government.

Parliament consists of France from two chambers, the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) with 577 members directly elected by the people and the senate with 348 members. These are determined by the departments (administrative districts). Nine parties are currently represented in the National Assembly. The ruling coalition consists of Macron's party En Marche as well as from the centrist Mouvement Démocrate (democratic movement) and the liberal party Agir, la droite constructive (Act, the constructive rights).

Prime Minister has been largely unknown since July 3, 2020 Jean Castex, Mayor of the small town of Prades in the Pyrenees and until his appointment a member of the republican (Les Republicains).

France: facts at a glance

  • Area: 543,965 square kilometers (excluding overseas territories)
  • Population: 66,993,000 (as of January 2019)
  • Capital: Paris
  • Language: French
  • Head of State: President Emmanuel Macron

France: population and language

The population has in France especially due to immigration from the former colonies in the last two decades. 1990 counted the Country 56.6 million inhabitants, in 2010 there were already 64.7 million. In 2017, the following countries made up the largest proportion of foreigners:

countrypopulation
Algeria823.500
Morocco771.300
Portugal618.200
Italy286.500
Tunisia283.800
Spain247.700
Turkey246.300
Great Britain145.900
Romania125.600
Comoros119.300

Only official language in France is French. In addition, the state tries to preserve regional languages ​​such as Alsatian, Breton, Basque and Corsican.

A special feature is the Toubon law passed in 1994, with which the French language is to be protected from excessive influences from other languages, especially English.

Not least because of the centuries of religious wars, France is now a strictly secular country. A law separating church and state was introduced as early as 1905. Information on the denomination is correspondingly low:

  • Catholicism: 40%
  • Islam: 5.1%
  • Protestantism: 1.7%
  • Judaism: 0.3%
  • Non-denominational: 50.5%

However, statistics are always vague in France as questions about religious affiliation are inadmissible.

France: geography and cities

The geography of the country is determined by strong regional contrasts. Large parts of France are criss-crossed by hills and mountain ranges, including the Alps in the southeast and the Pyrenees in the south. The 4,810 meter high Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in France and also in Europe. France borders the sea on three sides: the English Channel to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the French Country In addition to France proper (France métropolitaine), it also includes the overseas territories of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion.

The biggest Cities at a glance:

rankcitypopulation
1Paris2.187.526
2Marseille863.310
3Lyon516.092
4Toulouse479.553
5Nice340.017
6Nantes309.349
7Montpellier285.121
8Strassbourg280.966
9Bordeaux254.436
10Lille232.787

The numbers apply to the actual urban area. In the Paris metropolitan region (région parisienne) live a total of over 12 million people and thus over a fifth of the population population.

France: worth knowing

France is one of the economically strongest countries in Europe. The Country interferes more strongly in trade than is the case in other European countries and holds shares in many companies. French automobile manufacturing, mechanical engineering and the export of food and wine play a major role.

With around 83 million overnight stays a year, France is the world leader in tourism. The biggest tourist magnet is the capital Paris with its many sights and museums. Other popular regions are the Mediterranean coast, the Atlantic coast and, in winter, the French Alps. Also the French history attracts countless tourists who, among other things, visit the Palace of Versailles, the castles on the Loire and the memorials of the First and Second World Wars in Normandy and Lorraine.