Vomiting is an excretion

Observation of the excretions

Body waste is urine, stool, vomit, sputum and sweat. Many people naturally find it difficult to deal with the excrement of others. It is often very embarrassing for the patient when he needs help with the natural body functions or with vomiting.

First of all, tact is required during these situations. However, dislikes that are too strong must be taken seriously and care must be passed on to other family members or professional help.

Observing the excretions according to their shape, color, quantity, consistency and any additions and notifying the doctor of any changes can be very important for the diagnosis.

The vomiting

Vomiting is preceded by nausea, usually associated with nausea, increased salivation, slowed breathing and choking. The nausea can be relieved by deep and slow breathing. During the vomiting process, the esophagus, stomach, abdominal and diaphragm muscles contract, causing the stomach contents to be expelled. Vomiting can be caused by a variety of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or overeating, migraines, excessive alcohol consumption, emotions such as excitement or disgust due to smell, taste, appearance, irritation of the throat, motion sickness, at the beginning of a pregnancy. Vomiting feel strongly weakened up to physical and psychological exhaustion, in addition, the metabolism and the electrolyte balance can be disturbed and derailed by the loss of fluids.

The following criteria should be observed

  • When and how often does the patient vomit? Time of day; on an empty stomach, if you vomit after eating, do you observe the interval between meals, one or more times?
  • How and how much does the patient vomit? Choking, flowing, in a surge, suddenly? The amount is estimated.
  • What does the patient vomit? Smell and admixtures? Smell: normal, sour? Admixtures: bile, blood, saliva, mucus, if the intestine is blocked it can lead to vomiting of the intestinal contents (vomiting of feces)

Make a note of the observations and the peculiarities, under certain circumstances important connections can be drawn from this information.

Help with vomiting

The vomiting person often needs support and attention, help him sit down if necessary and have a small bowl or kidney dish ready, as well as handkerchiefs to wipe it off. It makes sense to protect the clothes or the bed, for example with a towel. Then let the mouth rinse against the bad taste. Tea or mouthwash are suitable. If the patient has sweated a lot, he will find washing his face and hands very pleasant. A change of linen may also be indicated. Finally the room is ventilated.

If the patient vomits more frequently, medication may have to be given as directed by the doctor, and the patient needs sufficient fluids such as non-carbonated mineral water or chamomile tea. Under certain circumstances, this can only be done with difficulty using a teaspoon.

The urine

Urine is produced in the kidneys and excreted through the urinary tract. Urination and elimination are vital and serve several purposes

  • The excretion of the so-called urinary substances from the blood. These are metabolic products that the body can no longer use or that are harmful to it.
  • The regulation of the fluid, electrolyte, acid and bladder balance in the body.

How much urine we excrete every day depends on the ratio of the fluids absorbed (from drinks and solid foods) and the amount secreted through sweating, stool and breathing. We excrete approx. 1500 ml of urine within 24 hours. An increased urine excretion over 3000 ml in 24 hours can occur with large amounts of water, with untreated diabetes, with the intake of diuretic drugs and with heart and kidney diseases.

At night, water retention in the tissue can be better broken down, so heart patients have an increased urge to urinate at night and the toilet has to be used more often. A reduced urine excretion of less than 500 ml in 24 hours can occur with a small amount of fluid, with fluid losses such as vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating, blood loss, with shock as well as with heart and kidney diseases. If less than 100 ml urine is excreted in 24 hours (= anuria) e.g. If there is a suspicion of deviations in the amount of urine excreted, the import and export should be recorded in writing.


Further observation criteria


Depending on the concentration of the urine, its color is light to dark yellow, it is clear and without admixtures.


  • Urine discoloration from food is possible, beetroot stains it red, and medication can also cause discoloration, so please always read the instructions for use
  • Bleach-water-colored to red-brown urine is caused by the addition of blood
  • Beer-brown urine with yellow shaking foam occurs in liver and gall bladder diseases
  • Whitish flocculations are caused by the addition of pus. Here the urine is cloudy and smells bad

Fresh "healthy" urine smells inconspicuous, only after standing for a long time does it smell of ammonia. A fruity acetone odor can occur with diabetes. Urine that does not appear normal should be picked up and shown to the doctor; the urination process may be disrupted. If the bladder is filled with 300 to 500 ml, the patient will have to urinate. It is emptied three to six times a day. Too frequent urination can occur, among other things, with bladder infections. Only small amounts of 20 to 50 ml of urine are excreted.

Difficult urination, often painful, can occur if the bladder muscle is weakened or if there is an obstruction to drainage such as an enlarged prostate that compresses the urethra from the outside or bladder stones. If more than 20 ml of urine remains in the bladder, this is referred to as residual urine. This urine can form a breeding ground for germs and may have to be treated.

The inability to hold urine arbitrarily or to determine how to empty it is called urinary incontinence. It has many consequences, so care for incontinence will be discussed in more detail. If the patient is unable to urinate, there is retention of urine and immediate medical treatment is required.


The chair

The food components that are not used by our body are transported from the small intestine to the large intestine. Intestinal bacteria ensure the breakdown. Water is withdrawn from the intestinal contents. Then it is carried to the rectum, the last part of the intestine, and excreted.

The texture of the stool depends on the composition of the food (fiber) and the amount of fluid remaining. Usually the bowel is emptied once or twice a day, at least every two days. The longer the stool remains in the bowel, the firmer it becomes. The frequency of emptying depends on the composition of the food, the amount of movement (movement also keeps the intestines moving), the amount of food, and the mental state (diarrhea can occur when excited, constipation when stressed), but also from habits.

Ordinary stool is soft in texture but well shaped. The color of the stool is influenced by the food eaten, medication or diseases of the digestive tract. The normal color is mainly caused by the bile pigment and is light to dark brown.


Color changes         




yellowish         Dairy products
greenish         spinach
red-brown         beets
black         Medicines containing carbon and iron
clay colored         Absence of bile pigments
(gray-white) black         

Bleeding from the stomach (tarry stool) Admixtures in the stool can be: mucus, blood, pus, blood deposits, parasites, pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms


If there are any abnormalities, a stool sample should be kept for the doctor. If there is constipation, diarrhea or fecal incontinence, special care is required.