What are the best paraphrasing tips

Correct paraphrasing in scientific papers - this is how it works!

Paraphrasing, just like quoting, is a classic aid for scientific work of all kinds. The paraphrase reproduces the content of studies, books or other documents in your own words. This means that the paraphrase is used differently than a quotation, which literally reproduces the relevant content. In both cases it is important that the sources are given correctly.


What is paraphrasing?


Paraphrasing is a popular alternative to classic quoting. It allows an in-depth examination of the literature.


5 tips for paraphrasing correctly


It is easier to implement a paraphrase correctly with these tips:
  1. Read the source text several times until the content is fully understood.
  2. Summarize the content of the source text in bullet points.
  3. Write your own text without having the source text.
  4. Adjust the texts to one another - avoid repetitions and check that the content is correct.
  5. State the sources correctly and completely.


What is quoting?


Quoting is the easiest way to provide scientific papers with relevant facts and information. Quoting too often, however, makes the text difficult to read. In addition, it can give the impression that the author has not dealt adequately with the topic.


5 tips for correct citations


Proper citation is possible with these five tips:
  1. Observe the guidelines for citing the university or chair
  2. Select the citation style - American, reference in the running text or German, reference in the footnote
  3. Check the selected quote carefully for its relevance to the overall context.
  4. Limit the number of quotations in the text so that the text remains legible
  5. Automatic bibliography helps to avoid sources of error in the references


Example: Paraphrasing vs. quoting


The author has to decide individually whether the paraphrase or the quotation is the better choice for a scientific paper. As a rule, however, it is better to resort to the paraphrase. Because this shows that the content of the original sources has been dealt with in detail. Correct reproduction also shows that the content has been correctly understood. Furthermore, the language of the original sources is often not suitable for the writing style of one's own work - this impairs the reading fluency of the text. The following example shows how to use the two forms. "In 2018, the German e-cigarette market recorded a 45% increase in sales." (Kersten, 2019, p. 128) Sales for e-cigarettes rose significantly in 2018. The sector was able to present a sales increase of 45% (Kersten, 2019, p. 128).


Include paraphrases in the text


If a paraphrase is used, a complete source is relevant. Because even if the point here is not to take content literally, the basic statement will be taken over by another author. In order to avoid the accusation of plagiarism, it is therefore important to always give a complete reference to the source for every paraphrase of a scientific paper.

The sources are given both in the text or in the footnote and in the bibliography. There are several types of citation that are recognized nationally and internationally. Before creating a thesis, it is essential to clarify whether a certain citation method is expected from the university or the supervisor. The structure in the text looks different for the individual sources for the paraphrases. Sales for e-cigarettes increased significantly in 2018. The sector was able to present a sales increase of 45% (Kersten, 2019, p. 128). - Author, year of publication, page
Sales for e-cigarettes increased significantly in 2018. The sector was able to present a sales increase of 45% (see Kersten 2019: 128).
- Author year of publication: page
Sales for e-cigarettes increased significantly in 2018. The sector reported a 45% increase in sales 1
- The references are presented in the footnote.
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