# What is compounding in steam turbine

## Boilers Condenser Cooling Tower (GATE / PSU)

Boilers condenser cooling tower handwritten notes for engineering students & GATE / PSU aspirants. Which have good explanation with pictorial representation and numerical with problem solutions.

Boilers condenser cooling covered following topics which are indexed below:

Two phase system

Concept of two phase system.

Formation of steam, its various phases, definition and representation of wet steam, dry steam, saturated steam and superheated steam on PV, T-s and H-s diagram.

Concept and determination of dryness fraction and degree of superheat.

Concept and determination of latent heat, sensible heat, enthalpy, entropy and specific volume of steam.

Use of Steam tables and Mollier chart- (Heat Entropy Chart).

Numerical examples based on above.

Throttling process.

Methods of measurement of steam quality, calorimeters, bucket, separating, throttling and combined calorimeters.

Boilers, mountings and accessories

Steam boiler concept, definition as per Indian Boilers Regulation (IBR), functions, features and classification.

Working, merits and demerits of the following low pressure steam boilers:

Simple vertical boiler.

Lancashire boiler.

Cornish boiler.

Cochran boiler.

Babcock and Wilcox water tube boiler.

Packaged boiler.

Waste heat recovery boiler.

Boiler mountings and accessories functions, working and location on boilers.

Boiler draft system-concept and classification.

Boiler performance - parameters, evaporative capacity, equivalent evaporation, efficiency, heat balance sheet, simple numerical examples based on these.

Concept of fluidized bed combustion boilers.

Maintenance, inspection and safety precautions in boiler house (As per IBR), check list in boilers.

Steam prime movers

Concept and classification of prime movers.

Steam nozzles-types, working and applications. Mass and velocity of steam discharge through nozzle (No derivation). Simple examples.

Steam turbine - concept and classification. Impulse and reaction turbines (constructional and materials details.) - working and differences.

Compounding of steam turbine:

Need.

Pressure compounding.

Velocity compounding.

Pressure velocity compounding.

Steam condensers and cooling towers

Elements of a steam condensing plant, concept, function and classification of condensers.

Jet condensers and surface condensers - constructional sketch, working and differences.

Vacuum efficiency and condenser efficiency of condensers - simple numerical example.

Classification, function and working of cooling towers.

Air compressors

Air compressor concepts, functions, classification and applications.

Working of reciprocating air compressor and rotary air compressors.

Single stage air compressor and multistage air compressor:

Working.

Inter-cooling & after cooling.

Power required and efficiency of reciprocating air compressors-single and two stages, simple numerical examples.

Concept of screw compressors for oil free air.

Heat transfer

Various modes of heat transfer.

Conduction heat transfer- Fourier’s law- explanation (No Cartesian or other equation derivation), thermal conductivity, heat transfer through a plain wall, composite wall and cylinder.

Convection heat transfer, Newton’s law of convection, free and force convection, coefficient of convection.

Radiation heat transfer, Blackbody concept, emissivity, refractivity, absorptivity, Stefan and Boltzmann’s law.

Define thermal conductivity.

Need, types, properties and applications of insulating materials in various industries.

Difference between hot and cold insulation.

Over all heat transfer coefficient.

Simple numerical examples based on above.

Heat exchanger: introduction, types and applications- Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) concept- (No derivation & no numerical examples).

These are topics for Boilers condenser cooling which are covered in app.

Boiler Condenser Cooling Tower handwritten notes for engineering students and GATE / PSU aspirants. Which have good explanations with a pictorial representation and numerically with problem solutions.

The boiler condenser cooling covered the following topics, which are listed below:

Two-phase system

Concept of the two-phase system.

Steam formation, its various phases, definition and representation of wet steam, dry steam, saturated steam and superheating steam on PV, T-s and H-s diagrams.

Concept and determination of the dry fraction and the degree of overheating.

Concept and determination of latent heat, sensible heat, enthalpy, entropy and specific vapor volume.

Use of steam tables and Mollier diagrams (Heat Entropy Chart).

Numerical examples based on above.

Throttling process.

Methods for measuring steam quality, calorimeter - shovel, separator, throttle and combined calorimeter.

Boilers, brackets and accessories

Steam boiler concept, definition according to Indian Boilers Regulation (IBR), functions, characteristics and classification.

Mode of operation, advantages and disadvantages of the following low-pressure steam boilers:

Simple vertical boiler.

Lancashire boiler.

Cornish cauldron.

Cochran cauldron.

Babcock and Wilcox water tube boilers.

Packaged kettle.

Waste heat recovery boiler.

Boiler mounts and accessories - functions, mode of operation and position on boilers.

Boiler design system concept and classification.

Boiler output - parameters, evaporation capacity, equivalent evaporation, efficiency, heat balance, simple numerical examples based on these.

Fluidized bed combustion boiler concept.

Maintenance, inspection and safety precautions in the boiler house (according to IBR), checklist in boilers.

Steam Prime Mover

Concept and classification of prime movers.

Steam nozzle types, mode of operation and applications. Mass and speed of the steam discharge through the nozzle (no derivation). Simple examples.

Steam turbine concept and classification. Impulse and reaction turbines (construction and material details) - mode of operation and differences.

Compounding of steam turbines:

Need.

Pressure mix.

Speed mix.

Print speed mix.

Steam condensers and cooling towers

Elements of a steam condensing system, concept, function and classification of condensers.

Jet capacitors and surface capacitors - construction sketch, mode of operation and differences.

Vacuum efficiency and capacitor efficiency of capacitors - simple numerical example.

Classification, function and functioning of cooling towers.

Air compressors

Air compressor concepts, functions, classification and applications.

Works of piston air compressors and rotary air compressors.

Single stage air compressor and multi-stage air compressor:

Work.

Intermediate cooling & after cooling down.

Required performance and efficiency of reciprocating air compressors - one and two stage, simple numerical examples.

Concept of screw compressors for oil-free air.

Heat transfer

Different types of heat transfer.

Thermal conduction according to Fourier's law (no Cartesian or other derivation of equations), thermal conductivity, heat transfer through a smooth wall, a composite wall and a cylinder.

Convection heat transfer, Newton's law of convection, free and force convection, convection coefficient.

Radiant heat transfer, black body concept, emissivity, degree of refraction, absorption capacity, Stefan and Boltzmann law.

Define thermal conductivity.

Insulation material needs, types, properties and applications in various industries.

Difference between hot and cold insulation.

Heat transfer coefficient.

Simple numerical examples based on above.

Heat exchangers: introduction, types and uses - Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) concept - (no derivation and no numerical examples).

These are boiler condenser cooling topics covered in the app.

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