What is demyelination disorder

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A newly discovered antibody linked to severe neurological autoimmune diseases in children could lead to faster diagnosis and improved treatment for those with the disease.

Researchers identified the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody in a study that included 535 children with central nervous system (CNS) demyelination disorders and encephalitis.

MOG antibodies damage the so-called myelin sheath, a protective covering made of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, and thus impair the transmission of stimuli via neuronal connections. Research over the past 10 years indicates that several demyelinating diseases are associated with the MOG antibody and that affected patients often respond well to immunotherapy.

Of the 116 children who tested positive for MOG antibodies and then received immunotherapy, 85% experienced a full or near recovery, the researchers reported in The Lancet Neurology on Feb.10.

According to the authors, the results suggest that the MOG antibody can be associated with more neurological autoimmune diseases than previously thought, e.g. neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders or autoimmune encephalitis. This group of CNS disorders is similar in its symptoms to multiple sclerosis, which often makes it difficult to make a correct diagnosis.

A correct and early diagnosis, e.g. through a test for the MOG antibody, could pave the way for the treatment of demyelinating diseases in children with immunosuppressants and prevent treatment with MS-specific drugs, which might be ineffective.

Source: https://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/news/20200212/scientists-spot-antibody-that-might-help-diagnose-treat-autoimmune-disorders#1