What was the first capital of Saskatchewan

History of Saskatchewan

The History of Saskatchewan, the middle of the prairie provinces of Canada, can be traced back to about the 8th millennium BC. Trace back to BC. In the four millennia before that, no human traces are to be expected, as the area of ​​the province was under a thick layer of ice that did not appear in the north until around 5000 BC. Chr. Disappeared. The movements of these ice masses, if they existed, must have destroyed all traces of previous residents.

The province's name is derived from the Saskatchewan River, which is in the Cree languageKisiskatchewani Sipi, or fast flowing river.1 The responsible Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada recognizes 70 today Indian tribes at.

Europeans did not come to the region until 1690, and in 1774 the first permanent settlement was established in the form of a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). It was that Cumberland House, which Samuel Hearne founded on the south shore of Lake Cumberland. This post existed until 1794 when he moved 1.5 km northwest to the New Cumberland House was moved.1a

The first missionaries came from the 1840s. The later province of Saskatchewan, which formed part of the vast Northwest Territories, was caught up in attempts by Great Britain to counteract US expansion with the establishment of Canada from 1867. London did this by building railroads and promoting settlement, as well as by contractually regulated displacement of the Indians into reservations. Métis and Cree, who suffered particularly from the slaughter of the bison herds, fought in vain under their leaders Louis Riel and Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear).

In 1905 the province was founded, Regina its capital. Industrialization and the aftermath of World War II brought a social democratic party to government for the first time in 1944, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. It ruled North America as the first party of this political direction until 1964. The conservative has dominated since 2007 Saskatchewan Party under Brad Wall.

Prehistory and early history

Distribution area of ​​the so-called potholes, Drainage holes left by the melting ice masses as it drained off

Northern Saskatchewan was not first established around 7000 BC. Largely ice-free. In 1995 the oldest traces of one were found at Heron Eden, 13 km south of Prelate in the southwest of the province kill-butchery site, a place where hunting animals were killed and cut up.4 The Norby Site in Saskatoon is around 5,700 years old.

The traces of the Paleo-Indians of the so-called are around 8,000 years old Agate Basin, a culture that dates from around 6000 to 5000 BC. Can be proven. The subsequent Shield Archaic Tradition ranged from about 4000 to 2000 BC Chr.

From 1000 to about 500 BC The Taltheilei tradition extended, finds in between are the Arctic Small Tool Tradition assigned (approx. 2000 to 1000 BC). These names conceal the early hunter-gatherer cultures that specialized in caribou hunting and that probably also came to the later provinces with the large herds.

The northern Agate Basin Complex is characterized by lanceolate projectile points that go back to the 8th millennium BC. Their manufacturers were probably originally bison hunters who successfully transferred their hunting techniques to other herd animals. The Agate Basin is a relatively young offshoot of the Paleo-Indian cultures of the northwest. The density of finds is much lower than in the Northwest Territories, and only two sites can be assigned with certainty: one on Black Lake near Lake Athabasca, and one on Hara Lake, north of Wollaston Lake. The hunters may have come to Saskatchewan infrequently, depending on how far the herds moved south. This was certainly due to the fact that the period between 8000 and 5000 BC B.C. became milder, at times even had a considerably warmer climate than today. This in turn meant that the tree line ran further north and thus blocked the animals from passing through. This northern part of the province was established between about 6000 BC. Inhabited by Paleo-Indians, Pre-Dorset people, Chipewyans, Northern Plains Indians, and Woodland Cree in 1700 BC. The Chipewyan or Ojibwa of the region largely depended on them Barrenground Caribous from (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). They lived from around 1300 on Black Lake, a region visited by hunters for several millennia.

In the south that is Agate Basin through the site Parkhill Site to indicate in the south of Moose Jaw. The almost 7,000 year old finds are among the oldest in the province. The extreme north was reached by this culture, always in the wake of the retreating ice sheet, over 3000 years later.

The group of finds following the Paleo-Indian, characterized by projectile points attached to the side Shield tradition, represents more of a technological advancement than a change in the population. The density of finds is even lower, so that it can be assumed that the caribou herds moved far north due to the warm climate and the northward expanding forests. The hunters followed them. Sites like that Near Norbert site on the Haultain River or the site at the confluence of the Umpherville River in Wollaston Lake are more evidence of summer camps than winter villages. Nevertheless, an expansion of the groups that were used to the dominant way of life in the south can be expected. Certain types of oxbow tips, as found in the plains between 3000 and 1500 BC. BC were in use, appeared even in the center of the province, not just in the south. Osbow projectiles are after the site Oxbow Dam site named in southern Saskatchewan, which in turn occur in the northern United States and in the southern and central areas of the Prairie Provinces. They have a concave base, are notched sideways and have ear-like bulges. They were mainly used as a point for the atlatl, the throwing spear, and they were often recycled and sharpened, so that very thin points often appear. They are mostly found in the company of other tools, such as those typically used to cut up large game, such as scrapers, scrapers, drills and other artifacts. Copper was also found in the southeast, a metal rarely found above ground in Canada, which came from the Great Lakes. The metal was also used for tools, but also for jewelry and needles.

Around 1500 BC A strong cooling began, the tree line moved southwards. People with a new range of prey and new weapons can be found in the north of the province. Their culture was close to that of the Arctic Inuit. This population, known as the pre-Dorset culture (cf. Inuit culture), used tools made of or with small stones and is therefore Arctic Small Tool tradition called. Sites are the Black Lake and the Athabasca Lake, but also the Reindeer Lake. However, only limited statements can be made as only a few excavations have been carried out.

Around 600 BC The region warmed up and Indian cultures dominated again. Similar to the arctic hunters, however, they also hunted the caribou. These Taltheilei tradition lasted until historical times. Taltheilei is traditionally divided into an early, a middle and a late phase according to the changes in stone tool types, the main archaeological source - with broad transition periods around 100 BC. And around 800 AD The culture existed in northern Saskatchewan north of the Churchill River.

The majority of the 60 to 70 rock drawings found north of the 55th parallel belong to the Taltheilei tradition. Most of them are located in the catchment area of ​​the Churchill River, which was the main transport route in the north.5

But the sequence is not clear. There were repeated immigration of groups from neighboring areas, as evidenced by finds of Pelican Lake projectiles, which are otherwise widespread in Alberta (Black Lake and Lake Athabasca). Some sites like the one excavated in 1957 Long Creek site have a useful life of even 5000 years in this case, which represents numerous traditions, among others. Avonlea and Besant (around 625 ± 325 years), Pelican Lake (around 350 ± 100 years), Hanna (around 1360 BC ± 115 years), Oxbow (around 2600 BC), possibly also Mummy Cave ( approx. 3000 BC ± 125 years).6 A group of 13 bearings at the has a useful life of 3500 years Mortlach Site in south-central Saskatchewan, which is considered the first scientific dig in the province and took place in 1954.7

The late stage, the Clearwater Lake complex, can be found in many places on the Churchill, Sturgeon-Weir and Reindeer Rivers. Triangular arrowheads and clay pots with dot patterns are their hallmarks.8 It is probably the ancestors of today's Cree tribes, which belong to the Algonquin group. These groups moved northward as far as the Fond du Lac River, their contemporaries, the later Anishinabe or Ojibwa (often called Chippewyans), lived further east at this time.

Under the name Laurel cultures are summarized that brought ceramics to the province for the first time. This technique came from Ontario, southeast Manitoba, and northern Minnesota, where it was used between 100 BC. Chr. And 1000 was common. Artifacts of the type reigned where the boreal forests could not be reached by these groups Besant in front. One of the late sites of this culture is in the Moose Woods Sand Hills 15 km southeast of Saskatoon. It's about the Fitzgerald sitewhere numerous remains of bison were found from around 800 that had been slaughtered there. They had been used for stockpiling because it could be shown that they had been processed into pemmican. The ruled the blade material Knife River Flint in front.8a

From 800 to 1400 the Besant - the Blackduck phase followed. This in turn joined the Clearwater Lake culture at. Like the previous culture, it was characterized by round-bottomed ceramic vessels, but with different forms of decoration. The Cree are likely to go back to this culture. The Pehonan culture (e.g. Bushfield West, near Nipawin, around 1600, with 250,000 artefacts), which has characteristics of the Cree, but also of the Plains cultures, may also be traced back to Cree.

Anishinabe moved further west and expelled the Dakota from what is now Minnesota at the end of the 18th century. As of 1840, they have settled north of Lake Superior and Lake Huron, as well as in Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The Algonkins or Woodland Cree lived up to the tree line, while the Plains Cree lived in the open park and grasslands.

Conflicts in which Blackfoot, Atsina, Cree, Assiniboine, Saulteaux, Sioux and Dene were involved relax between these groups. Place names like Battle River are a reminder of this. The tribes formed confederations like that Blackfoot Confederacywho ousted the Gros Ventre from Saskatchewan. Woodland Cree and Anishinabe also repeatedly got into conflicts, the continuation of which became a downright tradition.

First contacts with Europeans

The first European to set foot on Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who sailed up the Saskatchewan River in the hope of trading in fur with the province's residents. The first permanently inhabited European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company trading post at Cumberland House, founded by Samuel Hearne in 1774. As early as 1768, the independent fur traders François le Blanc and James Finlay Sr. had established a trading post on the Saskatchewan River, west of Nipawin, which was abandoned and burned down in 1773.9 French coureurs des bois however, appear in reports by the Hudson's Bay Company from 1716 and 1732.9a They are likely to have withdrawn after the end of the French colony (around 1760); they did not appear again until the late 1760s. By 1750, six groups of Cree had inhabited the western parklands, plains, and boreal forests, the Susuhana, Sturgeon, Pegogamaw, Keskachewan / Beaver, Athabasca, and Missinipi. They were all wiped out by the smallpox epidemic of 1781.9b Contrary to the earlier hypothesis that the Cree were forced to hunt for fur animals because of their dependence on the British and French fur trade, and that the European rifles gave them the necessary superiority over western groups (Mandelbaum 1940), recent studies show that the bow was in use until the beginning of the 19th century, and that the planned amounts of powder and ammunition were by no means sufficient to get the Cree through the winter. In addition, some trading posts themselves ran out of powder at times. York Factory and Fort Churchill brought between 220 and 440 canoes a year, so that perhaps up to 700 men actually made a living from the fur trade. It was not until the 1790s that competition increased, and large populations of fur animals collapsed. Instead, the opportunity to carry out forays into raids seems to have been a much stronger motive since the mid-1770s. William Walker from Cumberland House reported that the Cree had not gone to war every three years for some years, but annually. The trigger seems to have been the establishment of the trading stations. In doing so, they often joined joint ventures with their neighbors against more distant groups. It is also more than questionable that the Cree migrated westwards at all and originally came from the area around the Great Lakes.

In 1670 the British Crown “Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay” awarded the huge catchment area of ​​the tributaries of the Hudson Bay to the fur trading company later called the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). Numerous dealers from the Montreal North West Company competed with her; they founded their own forts, such as Fort Espérance in 1787. In 1821 the two companies were forcibly merged. From 1824 to 1856, in the central east of the province, Fort Pelly 1 existed, a fort that was excavated in the 1970s.10

The first missionaries came to Cumberland House around 1840. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the province's prairie region.

Saskatchewan as part of the Northwest Territories

When the newly founded Canada (see Canadian Confederation) took over the huge monopoly of the HBC, Fort Garry in later Manitoba became the first capital of the Northwest Territories. However, it was replaced in this function by Fort Livingstone in 1876/77. But even here, where the North West Mounted Police had erected barracks quickly, a severe winter prevented permanent settlement. Lieutenant Governor David Laird moved the capital to Battleford from 1877 to 1883. On May 8, 1882, the huge area was divided into provisional districts, the boundaries of which, however, shifted several times. These districts were Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, and Saskatchewan. Only the Keewatin District was not considered provisional.

During this time the huge herds of buffalo disappeared and the Indians were forced to cede their territories in exchange for food and blankets. To this end, eight of the eleven Numbered Treaties were signed between 1871 and 1899. Contracts Nos. 4, 6, 8, and 10 were for Indians in Saskatchewan.

The first of these treaties was Treaty 4. It was created on September 15, 1874 in Qu'Appelle. As a formal contractual partner, he names “Her Majesty the Queen and the Cree and Saulteaux Tribes of Indians at the Qu'Appelle and Fort Alice”. The background here was less the settlement issue, as in Manitoba or Ontario, than the expansion of the transcontinental railroad connection. As compensation for the abandonment of their land, the 33 and 34 tribes affected received the following: Each Indian should receive 5 dollars a year, plus clothes. Each chief should receive $ 25 when signing a contract and $ 25 per year, plus a coat and a silver coin. Every three years he was to receive a new set of clothes. Similarly, four other people from each tribe were given $ 15 a year for tools for tilling the soil and $ 750 a year for gunpowder and ammunition, cloth and thread for fishing nets. Upon request, the government agreed to maintain a school and teacher. The Indians also received the right to hunt and fish on all abandoned land, except where mining, agriculture or forestry was carried out, or, or where there were settlements. In Saskatchewan, 26 and 27 “tribes” were affected (another 7 in Manitoba).Specifically, these were the First Nations of Carry The Kettle, Cote, Cowessess, Day Star, Fishing Lake, Gordon, Kahkewistahaw, Kawacatoose, Keeseekoose, The Key, Kinistin, Little Black Bear, Muscowpetung, Muskowekwan, Nekaneet, Ocean Man, Ochapowace, Okanese, Pasqua, Peepeekisis, Pheasant Rump Nakota, Piapot, Sakimay, Star Blanket, White Bear, Yellow Quill. The Standing Buffalo did not sign the contract, but their participation was tacitly acknowledged.

Contract No. 6 affected even more groups. It came about in August and September 1876 with Plain and Wood Cree and other tribes in Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River (added in February 1889). At this time the Indians were decimated by smallpox and the bison herds, which had almost disappeared, forced them to accept alimentation from the Canadian state. For this they had to give up their traditional area and go to reservations. Additions to this contract continued until 1958. In Alberta 17 tribes were affected, in Manitoba 2 and in Saskatchewan 30. In Saskatchewan these were the First Nations of the Ahtahkakoop, Beardy's and Okemasis, the Big Island Lake Cree Nation, Big River, Chakastaypasin, Flying Dust, Island Lake, James Smith, Lac La Ronge, Little Pine, Lucky Man, Makwa Sahgaiehcan, Mistawasis, Montreal Lake, the Moosomin, Mosquito, Grizzly Bear's Head, Lean Man First Nation, Muskeg Lake, Muskoday, One Arrow, Onion Lake, Pelican Lake, Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Poundmaker, Red Pheasant, Saulteaux, Sweetgrass, Sturgeon Lake, Thunderchild, Waterhen Lake and Witchekan Lake.

Treaty No. 8 also concerned groups in the province, this time in the north. It came into being on June 21, 1899 and received amendments in 1901. The treaty concerned Indians at the Little Slave Lake. The trigger for this contract in an area of ​​around 840,000 square kilometers, in which such agreements in favor of settlers had previously been considered superfluous, was the gold rush on the Klondike. It provided tax exemption as well as capital penalty and military service for the undersigned Woodland Cree, Dunneza (or Biber) and Chipeway. In Saskatchewan, the Black Lake Denesuline Nation, Clearwater River Dene Nation, and Fond Du Lac Denesuline Nation were affected.

Contract No. 10 followed on August 28, 1906, which affected other groups in Saskatchewan. These were the First Nations of the Birch Narrows, Buffalo River Dene Nation, Canoe Lake Cree, English River, and Hatchet Lake First Nation.

As early as the beginning of the 1880s, smallpox was overshadowed by tuberculosis as the most dangerous disease. In 1886 the Qu'Appelle Indian mortality rate was 9%, but resilience increased. Although neither the federal government nor the province saw any inducement to provide medical aid, the death rate fell to 0.8% between 1907 and 1926, and to just over 0.4% by 1949. Only now was permanent medical care established, so that within ten years this rate fell to 0.039% - which means that the death rate was still 15 times higher than that of the non-indigenous population. Although it continued to decline, even in 1984 it was still 21 times higher.10a

Immigration and Railway Construction

The Canadian state, founded in 1867, was initially extremely fragile. Similar to the neighboring provinces, settlement and traffic development were seen as the only way to get the huge space under control and make it economically viable. Hence, an event in the history of western Canada in 1874 is considered to be groundbreaking. It is the March west the North-West Mounted Police, newly established by the federal government. Despite poor equipment and a lack of provisions, these men established the federal presence in the new territories. Had this expedition been unsuccessful, or if the Canadian Pacific Railway had been built later or further north, the United States would have entered this political vacuum and British Columbia might have joined the United States. The North West Mounted Police established several posts and forts across Saskatchewan, including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills in the southwestern province, and Wood Mountain Post in central south, near the American border.

European settlement began with the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the early 1880s. The construction of the railway changed the settlement and economic structure of the region dramatically. On the one hand, the more southerly route chosen made it easier to defend the border against the USA and protect it against illegal immigration; on the other hand, from 1882 the economic focus shifted from the Battleford-Edmonton line towards Pile O'Bones (later Regina) -Calgary. The settlement structure was increasingly based on a chain of settlements on either side of the railway lines that linked the oceans. This improved the economic starting position for agriculture, which was connected to the world market at competitive prices.

Doukhobor village Vosnesenya - Thunder Hill

The immigrants distributed themselves according to a frequently recurring pattern. They moved into the existing foundations of their compatriots, which led to ethnic agglomerations. This effect was reinforced by advertisers who often went to their former homeland to win compatriots over to emigrate. The Doukobor run by Peter Vasilevich Verigin (1859-1924) is a specialty.11 They came from the Ukraine and southern Russia and from there avoided the political and religious pressure to Canada. In addition, the more than 7,000 people received three colonies, the North Colony in the Pelly and Arran districts, the South Colony in Canora, Kamsack and Veregin and the Good Spirit Lake Annex - together over 770,000 acres. But in 1918 many of them were given private property or moved to British Columbia, and the reservations were dissolved. About this time a group of them came from British Columbia and purchased more than 11,000 acres of land in the Kylemore District.12

Early sod house

Métis and Northwest Rebellion

As early as 1800 the Métis, mostly descendants of French and Indians, had shifted their settlement focus to the region of what would later become Manitoba. They were of the utmost importance in supplying the forts with pemmican. However, some groups moved further west when the bison populations collapsed in Manitoba. They became ranchers after the herds were almost completely wiped out.13 The Métis have long viewed the HBC's immigration policy as the greatest threat, which also threatened their second economic mainstay, agriculture, which they practiced as smallholders based on the French model. They demanded a province of their own in the newly formed Canada. The Canadian government apparently continued the HBC policy. So it came in 1869 to the Red River Rebellion and in 1885 to the Northwest Rebellion. In 1870 the Manitoba Act still took into account the demands of the Métis, so that the rebellion ended bloodlessly, but the Métis, which have since evaded further west to Saskatchewan, especially around Batoche, continued to try to maintain their own province.

Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear), Plains Cree chief, O. B. Buell 1885

The Indians in the vast area were also extremely concerned at the time, as they were starving because of the disappearance of the buffalo. Therefore, troops were concentrated in the east. The initially successful Métis rebellion collapsed with the Battle of Batoche, and the Cree under Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear) also had to give in. Some of their warriors, such as Wandering Spirit, were executed, as was Métis leader Louis Riel. The now 70 recognized Indian tribes were finally pushed into reservations, the Métis were observed suspiciously for decades and only recognized as an ethnic group in 1982.

Saskatchewan Province

Founding of the province and era of Walter Scott (1905 to 1916)

In 1905 Regina became the capital of the new province of Saskatchewan. The first prime minister was the liberal Thomas Walter Scott (until 1916). One of his first acts was to prevent the transfer of the capital from Regina to Saskatoon. In 1908 construction began on the government building, which lasted four years. With the Rural Municipality Act About 300 rural parishes emerged in 1908, each of which was 324 square miles in size. They represent a form of organization that is otherwise only available in Manitoba. In addition, the government promoted the expansion of the transport and communication networks. In 1909 the University of the Province was opened, the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon.

In the conflict of denominations and languages, between French-speaking Catholics and English-speaking Protestants, Scott took a moderate position. After Manitoba introduced women's suffrage, he abandoned his hesitant stance and introduced it on Valentine's Day, 1916. In December of the same year, 80% of those eligible to vote, including women for the first time, opted for alcohol prohibition. Prime Minister Scott had to resign on charges of corruption in 1916 - a phenomenon that runs through the entire history of the province.

From the first to the end of the Second World War

Scott's successor, William Melville Martin, managed to restore the Liberal Party's tarnished image so quickly that he won the 1917 elections. As an outsider, he was free from allegations of corruption. While the Liberal Party was being pressured by the farmers' parties across Canada, Martin managed to get them into his government. At the same time he succeeded in asserting himself against the Progressive Party. He was followed by Charles Avery Dunning (until 1926).

While in some provinces the farmers leaned towards the Progressive Party or the United Farmers, Dunning managed to keep them going too. But the recurring scandals brought the Liberal Party, after James Garfield Gardiner was able to hold out until 1929, ultimately for political power. Although he succeeded in another election victory in 1934, Gardiner left the province for Ottawa the next year.

Socialist government

He was followed by the liberal William John Patterson, but with his resignation in 1944, with Tommy Douglas, a social democratic party came to power in North America for the first time, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). For the first time, it introduced a comprehensive sickness insurance program. Douglas' successor Woodrow Stanley Lloyd had to prevail against a doctors strike in 1962. He lost the 1964 election.

Corruption scandals and the dispute over the role of the state

With Ross Thatcher, the Liberals returned in 1964. After he was re-elected in 1967, he implemented an austerity program that provided for tax increases, fees for medical treatment, reduced government services and brought more resource prospectors to the province. But in 1971 he lost the election against his old opponent, who are now under the name Saskatchewan New Democratic Party competed. Allan Blakeney became the new prime minister. He promoted the creation of a Crown corporation for the raw materials industry, above all a company for the mining of potassium carbonate or potash. The government established SaskOil, a state-owned oil and gas company, and vehemently opposed government interference.

Downtown Regina as seen from Victoria Park in Fall 2012

From 1982 to 1991 the Conservatives ruled again for the first time under the leadership of Grant Devine. He promoted the raw materials industry through generous tax cuts and gave it an increasingly free hand over other interests. He also sold SaskOil. Substantial parts of the infrastructure, such as road construction, were also privatized. The final years of Devine's administration have been marred by scandals of unusual proportions even for North America.

The Saskatchewan New Democratic Party, which won the 1991 election, took on $ 14 billion in debt.14 In 1999 Prime Minister Roy Romanov was forced to form a coalition with the Saskatchewan Liberal Party and to include several of its members in his conservative cabinet. He was followed from 2001 to 2007 by his party colleague Lorne Calvert.

Brad Wall has been the leader of the Saskatchewan Party Prime minister. This party emerged in 1997 from a union of former progressive-conservative and liberal politicians. At first, however, in view of the predominance of the conservatives, it was assumed that they were trying to free themselves from the corruption scandals in this way. In 2003 the Saskatchwan Party advocated state withdrawal and tax cuts, but has since moved towards the political center. In the elections on November 7, 2011, the party was able to expand its majority and has since held 49 seats in parliament.


The Saskatchewan History Magazine is devoted exclusively to the history of the province. It has been used by the Saskatchewan Archives released.15

  • Arthur J. Ray, Jim Miller, Frank Tough: Bounty and Benevolence: A History of Saskatchewan Treaties, McGill-Queen's University Press 2000.
  • Robert Alexander Innes: “I'm On Home Ground Now. I'm Safe ‟: Saskatchewan Aboriginal Veterans in the Immediate Postwar Years, 1945 1946, in: The American Indian Quarterly 28/3 & 4 (2004), pp. 685-718.
  • Jenna Johnston: The St. Louis Site (FfNk-7) and the Below Forks Site (FfNg-25): The Faunal Analysis of Two Mummy Cave and Oxbow Complex Sites in Central Saskatchewan, M.A. Theses, University of Saskatchewan 2005.
  • Saskatchewan Bureau of Statistics: Saskatchewan Population Report: 2006 Census of Canada. (PDF, 50 KB). .
  • Bernard D. Thraves: Saskatchewan. Geographic Perspectives, University of Regina Press, 2007. (Google Books)
  • B.A. Nicholson:, University of Regina Press, 2011. (Google Books)

External links


  1. 1 ↑ Name of the Canadian government: Saskatchewan. She in turn gets her information from William B. Hamilton: The Macmillan book of Canadian place names, Macmillan of Canada, Toronto, 1978, p. 293.
  2. 1a ↑ The site of the (Old) Cumberland House was archaeologically investigated from 1991: Laurie L. Froehlich: Investigation of the old Cumberland House trading post (FIMn-8): an analysis of the artifact and faunal assemblages, M.A. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan 2001.
  3. 4 ↑ M. C. Corbeil: The Archaeologoy and Taphonomy of the Heron Eden Site, Southwestern Saskatchewan, unpublished Master of Arts thesis from the University of Saskatchewan, Department of Anthropology and Archeology 1995.
  4. 5 ↑ See Tim E. H. Jones: The Aboriginal Rock Paintings of the Churchill River, Regina 1981.
  5. 6 ↑ In 1988 a site of the Mummy Cave Complex (Suzanne Caroline Zurburg: The Norby site: a mummy cave complex bison kill on the northern plains, Thesis, MA, Saskatoon 1991).
  6. 7 ↑ Boyd Runners: The Mortlach Site, Regina 1955.
  7. 8 ↑ Finally on the clay pots of the Woodland phase: Patrick S. Young: An Analysis of Late Woodland Ceramics. From Peter Pond Lake, Saskatchewan, Master of Arts (Thesis), Saskatoon 2006.
  8. 8a ↑ Benjamin Edward Hjermstad: The Fitzgerald site: a besant pound and processing area on the Northern Plains, M.A. thesis, University of Saskatchewan 1996.
  9. 9 ↑ Alice B. Kehoe: Francois' House: An Early Fur Trade Post of the Saskatchewan River, Regina 1978.
  10. 9a ↑ HBCA B.239 / a / 2, August 3, 1716 and HBCA B.239 / a / 14, June 16, 1732.
  11. 9b ↑ Dale Ronald Russell: The 18th century western Cree and their neighbors: identity and territory, M.A. thesis, University of Saskatchewan 1990.
  12. 10 ↑ Cf. Olga Klimko: The Archeology and History of Fort Pelly 1: 1824-1856, Regina 1983.
  13. 10a ↑ Joanne M. Hader: The effect of tuberculosis on the Indians of Saskatchewan: 1926-1965, Master of Arts, University of Saskatchewan 1990.
  14. 11 ↑ See Distribution of Doukhobor Villages in Saskatchewan.
  15. 12 ↑ See Doukhobor Genealogy Website.
  16. 13 ↑ Maurice F. V. Doll, Robert S. Kidd and John P. Day examined your situation at the end of the 19th century: The Buffalo Lake Métis Site: A Late Nineteenth Century Settlement in the Parkland of Central Alberta, Calgary 1988.
  17. 14 ↑ David Roberts, Romanow cuts spending, hikes taxes, in: Globe and Mail. March 19, 1993.
  18. 15 ↑ Saskatchewan History.

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